(1823-1889) Realism French painter and teacher. His skill in drawing was apparently evident by the age of 11. His father could not afford his training, but in 1839 his département gave him a grant to go to Paris. This enabled him to register at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts the following October as a pupil of François-Edouard Picot. At his first Salon in 1843 he presented Agony in the Garden (Valenciennes, Mus. B.-A.) and won second place in the Prix de Rome competition (after Léon Bénouville, also a pupil of Picot) in 1845 with Christ at the Praetorium (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Both Cabanel and Bénouville were able to go to Rome, as there was a vacancy from the previous year. Cabanel’s Death of Moses (untraced), an academic composition, painted to comply with the regulations of the Ecole de Rome, was exhibited at the Salon of 1852. The pictures he painted for Alfred Bruyas, his chief patron at this time (and, like Cabanel, a native of Montpellier), showed more clearly the direction his art had taken during his stay in Italy. Albaydé, Angel of the Evening, Chiarruccia and Velleda (all in Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) were the first of many mysterious or tragic heroines painted by Cabanel and show his taste for the elegiac types and suave finish of the Florentine Mannerists.
CABEL (see ARENTSZ., Arent)
(1585-1631) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
CABEZALERO, Juan Martín
(1633-1673) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1665-1737) Baroque Italian sculptor (Venice)
(1700-1781) Baroque Italian painter
(1750-1799) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1904- ) U.S. painter, also highly accomplished draughtsman and print maker, of contemporary life and social interaction. His The Fleet's In! (1934) was controversial due to its depiction of sailors and women carousing in an uninhibited sexual manner. This atmosphere permeates much of his work. Satire and *Social Realism were also characteristic of his subsequent Sailors and Floosies (1938). His subject matter means, however, that his remarkable technique, in the tradition of Renaissance painting and drawing, which he self-consciously emulates, is sometimes overlooked.
(1635-1667) Baroque Italian sculptor (Rome)
(1809-1866) Romanticism Italian painter
(1650-1710) Baroque Italian painter
(1725-1792) Baroque French sculptor
(1714-1774) Rococo French goldsmith
(1601-1682) Baroque Italian painter
( 1894-1954) French photographer and writer. Her work was both political and personal, and often played with the concepts of gender and sexuality.
(1848-1894) French Impressionist painter and an early collector of Impressionist paintings. He bequeathed his coll. to the Musee du Luxembourg and it is now in the Musee d'Impressionnisme (Pans).
CAILLOT, Claude-Augustin (see CAYOT, Claude-Augustin)
(1677-1722) Baroque French sculptor (Paris)
(1607- 1665) Italian painter. He led a successful career as court painter at Turin and painted many large altarpieces for religious orders; the range of his stylistic development during nearly 40 years is enormous, yet his early cabinet pictures, of macabre and morbid subjects, remain his most fascinating achievement. They mark the end of the brilliant originality and passionate feeling that had distinguished early 17th-century Milanese painting.
(1575-1634) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1810-1864) Romanticism Swiss painter
CALCAR, Jan Steven van
(1499-1546) High Renaissance Flemish painter (Italy)
CALDARA, Polidoro (see POLIDORO DA CARAVAGGIO)
(1497-1543) High Renaissance Italian painter (Rome)
(1898-1976) U.S. artist who first trained as an engineer. In Pans in the 1930s he was influenced by the work of Mondrian and Miro and broke new ground with his wire figure sculptures; these 'stabiles' gave place to C.'s new concept in sculpture, the mobile. C's mobiles, sometimes several feet from extremity to extremity, are carefully balanced constructions of metal plates, rods and wires which are activated by either air currents, mechanical means or the push of a hand. With their continually changing configurations they provide a new medium for the artist of space. C. also produced book ills and stage sets.
(1315-1355) Medieval Italian sculptor (Venice)
CALIARI, Paolo. *Veronese
(1538-1598) Mannerism Italian painter (Venice)
( 1567-c. 1592) Mannerism Italian painter (Venice)
(1741-1823) Rococo French painter
CALLOIGNE, Jan Robert
(1775-1830) Neoclassicism French sculptor
(1592-1635) Baroque French etcher, one of the masters of this technique who made it a respectable medium in its own right. Fie spent about 10 years in Rome and Florence but from 1622 worked mainly in Nancy. He drew court figures, etc., but is most famous for Les Grandes Miseres de la Guerre (1633) illustrating the horrifying brutalities of the 30 Years War. His use of etching rather than line engraving enabled him to make extensive use of aerial perspective.
CALRAET, Abraham van
(1642-1722) Baroque Dutch painter (Dordrecht)
(1540-1619) Mannerism Flemish painter (Bologna)
CAMIANO, Tino di
(1280- 1337) Italian sculptor. He led an itinerant career, working in Siena, Pisa, Florence and Naples for some of the most powerful Guelph and Ghibelline patrons of the day. The roots of his style lie in late 13th-century Siena, but during his long stay in Ghibelline Pisa it gradually grew nearer to that of Giovanni Pisano. Tino’s return to Siena and the change in his political affiliation in 1315 were accompanied by a new artistic orientation, in which he drew inspiration from painting, particularly the work of Simone Martini. This period of artistic maturity extended also to his time in Florence (1318–1323/4). He was the most important and inventive sculptor of funerary monuments in Tuscany at this time, and in this capacity he was summoned to Naples by the House of Anjou, the leaders of the Guelph party in Italy. Through his influence on local sculptors, the innovations of Tuscan Gothic sculpture were spread throughout southern Italy, and his influence there was felt long after his death. His style is characterized by powerful figures in which are united an impression of substantial volume and geometric structure with a sense of grace and a rhythmic flow of form.
(1602-1649) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1743-1812) Scottish architect who introduced the Adam style into Russian architecture. Little is known about his early life in Europe, except for the fact that he studied in Italy and France. Having read his book about Roman thermae, Catherine the Great summoned him to Russia to reconstruct her summer residence in Tsarskoe Selo. In that village, he designed the so-called Cameron Gallery with the Agate Rooms, the Hanging Gardens, and the Cold Baths. In these structures, Cameron skilfully reproduced the colorful decoration of Roman public baths. Sophia Cathedral was the only notable church designed by him. For the future Emperor Paul he built an extensive residence, the Pavlovsk Palace, somewhat plain in exterior appearance but dazzlingly luxurious inside. In 1799-1803 he rebuilt the Razumovsky palace in Baturyn, Ukraine.
(1527-1585) Mannerism Italian painter (Genoa)
CAMBIO, Arnolfo di
(1245-1302) Florentine sculptor and architect Arnolfo di Cambio was greatly inspired by the heroic classical style of Nicola Pisano, who he assisted as a young man. His work also shows an awareness of the French Gothic linear values. Among the many buildings in Florence attributed to him are Santa Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio. He was master mason of the new cathedral of Florence, begun in 1296.
(1669-1736) Baroque Italian sculptor (Rome)
(1615-1673) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1549-1625 )Baroque Italian sculptor (Venice)
(1500-1564) High Renaissance Italian graphic artist (Padua)
CAMPAÑA, Pedro de
(1503-1580) High Renaissance Spanish painter
(1676–1729) Scottish architect who spent most of his career in England, and is credited as a founder of the Georgian style. A descendent of the Campbells of Cawdor Castle, he initially trained as a lawyer, and then studied architecture.
CAMPEN, Jacob van
(1595-1657) Baroque Dutch architect
CAMPENY Y ESTANY, Damián
(1771-1855) Neoclassicism Spanish sculptor
(1523-1587) Mannerism Italian painter (Cremona)
(1502-1572) High Renaissance Italian painter (Cremona)
(1536-1591) Mannerism Italian painter (Cremona)
CAMPIN, Robert (see MASTER of Flémalle)
(1375/9-1444) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter. He is first mentioned in 1405–6 as a painter in Tournai. As he purchased citizenship there in 1410, he may have been born elsewhere. There is evidence of some connection with Valenciennes, where the name Campin is said to have been common, but nothing certain is known of his artistic training and background.
CAMPROBÍN, Pedro de
(1605-1674) Baroque Spanish painter (Seville)
CANAL, Bernardo Canaletto Bellotto Bernardo. *Bellotto Bernardo
(1664-1744) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
CANAL, Giovanni Antonio (see CANALETTO)
(1697-1768) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(1697-1768)Baroque Italian painter of the Venetian school. Canaletto. Name adopted by Giovanni Antonio Canal(e). Trained by his father and by Pannini in Rome, C. became the painter of Venice, its canals, the Rialto, the Riva del Schiavoni, the Salute. His pictures were sold to tourists, including Englishmen on the Grand Tour, with whom he became so popular that he placed most of his business through Joseph Smith, later British consul in Venice. In 1746 C. was in London, and for the next 10 or so years he painted English scenes, but he appears to have been less in demand when he came to this market than he was in Venice. C. gives his studies of buildings, sky and water a shimmering effect and the rapid, stylized drawings of small figures in landscapes and town scenes were to influence artists and illustrators in every part of Europe to the present day. The Royal Colls contain much of his best work, both of the Venetian and the English period.
CANALETTO, Il (see BELLOTTO, Bernardo)
(1720-1780) Rococo Italian painter
(1933-1987) Neo-Figurative Art.
(1548-1628) Mannerism Flemish painter
(1601-1667) Baroque Spanish court painter, architect and sculptor called, on account of his versatility, the 'Michelangelo of Spain'. Like Velazquez he studied under *Pacheco. He painted portraits and religious subjects in soft golden brownish tones but often with hard contours. There is an excellent portrait of C. by Velazquez.
(1757-1822) Neoclassicism Italian sculptor, the most celebrated exponent of Neoclassicism in sculpture. In Rome he executed monuments of Popes Clement XIII (1787-92; St Peter's) and Clement XIV (1782-7; SS Apostoli) and in Vienna the tomb of the Archduchess Maria Christina (completed 1805). Other work included Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus (1807) and the charming Amor and Psyche (1793); C. also executed 2 huge nudes of the Emperor Napoleon, one of which was captured by Wellington.
(1612-1648) BaroqueItalian painter (Pesaro)
(active 1338-1348) MedievalItalian painter (Assisi)
(c. 1420-1505) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Perugia)
(1711-1774) Baroque Italian painter (Bergamo)
CAPPELLE, Jan van de
(1626-1679) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
(1875-1942) Italian poster art designer who lived in Paris. He is now often called 'the father of modern advertising' because of his innovation in poster design. The early advertising poster was characterized by a painterly quality as evidenced by early poster artists Jules Chéret, Alfred Choubrac and Hugo D'Alesi. Cappiello, like other young artists, worked in way that was almost the opposite of his predecessors. He was the first poster artist to use bold figures popping out of black backgrounds, a startling contrast to the posters early norm.Cappiello had no formal training in art. The first exhibition of his work was in 1892, when a painting was displayed at the municipal museum in Florence.Cappiello started his career as a caricaturist illustrating in journals like Le Rire, Le Cri de Paris, Le Sourire, L'Assiette au Beurre, La Baionnette, Femina, and others. His first album of caricatures, "Lanterna Magica," was made in 1896. In 1898, he moved to Paris, and his caricatures were published in Le Rire for the first time.Cappiello made his name during the poster boom period in the early 20th century, with designs markedly different from premier poster artist (ref. "Cappiello, the posters of Leonetto Cappiello by Jack Rennert ISBN 0-9664202-7-6) Jules Chéret. His first poster, for the newspaper Frou-Frou, was made in 1899. He signed first contract for posters with printer P. Vercasson in 1900. He was married to Suzanne Meyer Cappiello in 1901. Between 1901 and 1914, he created several hundred posters in a style that revolutionized the art of poster design.Cappiello redesigned the fin-de-siècle pictures into images more relevant to the faster pace of the 20th century. During this period, Capiello continued as a caricaturist. During World War I, Cappiello worked as an interpreter in Italy. Afterwards, he devoted his career fully to poster design. In 1919, he signed a contract with publisher Devambez.and he remained with the agency until 1936. Over the course of his career Cappiello produced more than 530 advertising posters (ref "Cappiello. the posters of Leonetto Cappiello by Jack Rennert) which surprise and delight the viewer. Today, his original posters are still collected, sold at auction and by dealers around the world.
CAPPONI, Luigi di Pietro
(active 1485-1500) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Rome)
(1494-1528) High Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
CARACCIOLO, Giovanni Battista
(1578-1635) Baroque Neapolitan painter whose Caravaggesque style strongly influenced I7th-c. Neapolitan painting.
(1452-527) Early Renaissance Italian goldsmith
CARAGLIO, Giovanni Jacopo
(1500/05-1565) High Renaissance Italian graphic artist
(1573-1610) Baroque Italian painter. He was trained in Milan by an undistinguished Mannerist. By 1593 he was in Rome working for other painters, very poor and already appearing in police records as a bravo. In about 1596 his fortunes changed dramatically. Some of his paintings were bought by the influential Cardinal del Monte and he was commissioned to paint a series of large religious paintings for the Contarelh chapel, S. Luigi de' Francesi. Previous to this C. has painted some of the 1st true still-lifes, notably The Basket of Fruit, a series of paintings of a model as 'Bacchus', The Musical Party and a masterly double half-portrait of a man and woman entitled The Fortune Teller, which obviously owes something to Giorgione in subject and composition, though the lighting and feeling reveal a quite new and original talent.
For the Contarelh chapel C. painted an altarpiece, Si Matthew and an Angel, and 2 large canvases for the side walls, The Calling of St Matthew and The Martyrdom of Si Matthew. These pictures caused a sensation. The 'St Matthew' (original destroyed 1945) of the altarpiece was considered vulgar and sacrilegious by the clergy and C. painted the 2nd version, still in the church. Other major works of the period are The Conversion of St Paul, 'The Martyrdom of St Paul for S. Maria del Popolo, The Supper at F.mniaus, The Death of the Virgin and The Deposition of Christ. At the height of his success C. killed a companion in a brawl and had to flee Rome. The last years of his life consisted of short periods of asylum, spent painting, at Naples, in Malta and Sicily. Each period ended in a brawl and renewed flight. Wounded in Palermo he reached Porto Ercole where he died. Although recent scholarship has modified C.'s reputation as a revolutionary, he remains one of the true innovators. He declared early in his career that he had rejected the Renaissance search for the ideal and would study no teacher but nature. His method of painting directly from the model and Ins choice of models from low life, presented just as they were even in his large religious works, were both complete breaks with tradition. However, to consider him a realist before his time is to miss his other innovation: a heightening of dramatic effect by the use of lighting that was always contrived and often highly artificial showing his emphatic sense of chiaroscuro. Attacked by many, his works were protected by powerful patrons during his life and after his death. The imitation of his work inspired a school of painting in Spain, the Carai'aggisti, and led to the art of Velazquez. In N. Europe he had even more followers; the most directly affected were De *La Tour in France and *Honthorst in Holland and Rembrandt learned much from him.
CARBAJAL, Luis de
(1531-1621) Mannerism Spanish painter
CARDI, Lodovico (see CIGOLI)
(1559-1613) Mannerism Italian painter (Florence)
(1554-1608) Mannerism Spanish painter
(1576-1638) Baroque Spanish painter
(1485-1547) High Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
CARLBERG, Norman Norman Kenneth Carlberg
(born 1928) American sculptor and printmaker.
(1663-1730) Baroque Italian painter and etcher who lived in Venice from 1679 and painted scenes of the city for foreign visitors. In this he was a precursor of Canaletto and Guardi, though he maintained a greater interest in figure groups.
(1703-1750) Rococo Italian painter (Venice)
(1730-1785) Rococo French cabinet-maker (Paris)
CARLO DA MILANO (see BRACCESCO, Carlo)
(active 1478-1501) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Liguria)
CARLONE, Giovanni Andrea
(1639-1697) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
CARLONE, Giovanni Battista
(1603-1684) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
CARLONE, Carlo Innocenzo
(1686-1775) The Carlone workshop painted series of frescos in the cathedrals of Asti and Monza, in palaces in Brescia, Bergamo, and Como, as well as in churches and palaces across Austria. Germany, Poland, and Switzerland. Most notable were the decorations in Augustus Castle in Brtihl, Ludwigsburg Castle, and the Belvedere in Vienna, where the frescos comprised enchanting mythological scenes and allegories celebrating the life of Prince Eugene. Carlones style was very explicitly Rococo, both in his drawing technique, brimming with vivacity, and also in his use of subtle pastel hues, without the strong effects of chiaroscuro. Carlone produced many easel paintings, which were also executed in a similar style; he had considerable influence on Austrian and German painters, who usually sought inspiration from the Venetian masters, as did Carlone himself.
(1592-1673) Baroque Italian sculptor
(c. 1425-1484) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Urbino)
CARNICERO Y MANCIO, Antonio
(1748-1814) Rococo Spanish painter (Madrid)
CARO, Baldassare de
(1689-1750) Baroque Italian painter (Naples)
CAROLSFELD,Julius Schnorr von
(1794-1872) Painter and draughtsman, brother of Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld. He was taught engraving by his father and then trained under Heinrich Füger at the Akademie in Vienna (1811–15). Though not particularly excited by the curriculum, he was inspired by his friendship with Ferdinand Olivier and Joseph Anton Koch and the circle around A. W. Schlegel to an interest in both landscape sketching (examples of pen-and-ink drawings from this period in the Albertina, Vienna) and in old German and Netherlandish art, as reflected in the style of the detailed pen drawing of the Prodigal Son (1816; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.). From 1815 to 1818 he lived in the house of Ferdinand Olivier, whose step-daughter, Marie Heller, he later married. A painting of 1817, St Roch Distributing Alms (Leipzig, Mus. Bild. Kst.), is an excellent record of this period, as it contains portraits of Ferdinand Olivier and Marie Heller, and a landscape background similar to that sketched by Schnorr von Carolsfeld with Ferdinand and Friedrich Olivier around Salzburg.
(1521-1599) Mannerism French painter and draughtsman. He started his career modestly in his native city, then a relatively important artistic centre, where he painted some religious pictures (e.g. the Resurrection; Beauvais, Mus. Dept. Oise) and designed cartoons for stained-glass windows; both demonstrate his innate taste for decorative work. Caron was later active in the workshops at Fontainebleau, and his name appears in the royal accounts of Henry II between 1540 and 1550. He later became court painter to Catherine de’ Medici, the Queen Regent (1560–63). Besides Jean Cousin the younger, he was the only French artist from this period with a recognizable artistic personality and was an important witness to the activities of the Valois court during the reigns of Charles IX (reg 1560–74) and Henry III (reg 1574–89) and the violent Wars of Religion (1562–98) between Catholics and Huguenots. Like his royal patrons, Caron was an ardent Roman Catholic; he was connected with the Catholic League and a friend of its poet and pamphleteer, Louis d’Orléans.
(1585-1652) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
CAROTO, Giovanni Francesco
(1488-after 1562) High Renaissance Italian painter (Verona)
(1472-1526) High Renaissance Italian painter of the Venetian school, trained in the style of the Vivarini and the Bellini. C.'s best-known work is the cycle of paintings The Legend of St Ursula. A story-teller of great imagination, C. related the incidents of the legend against the background of an idealized version of the Venice he knew. Thus the enchanting Dream of St Ursula shows the bedroom of a Venetian noblewoman. Similarly in The Vision of St Augustine the artist depicts the grandiose study of some Renaissance scholar-churchman. C. has always been a popular painter and there has been considerable critical interest in his work in recent years. His range of subjects and feeling is shown by such works as Two Venetian Ladies, the St Ceorge cycle of paintings, Preparations for the Entombment of Christ, The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, Meditation on the Passion of Christ.
(1827-1875) Romanticism French sculptor
CARPI, Girolamo da
(1501-1556) High Renaissance Italian painter (Ferrara)
(1613-1678) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(1881-1966) Leading Italian *Futurist painter who signed the Manifesto of futurist Painters (1910). After World War I he followed De *Chirico's 'metaphysical' style. From 1921 he produced peaceful, more naturalistic work influenced by Giotto.
1651) Baroque Dutch painter (Dordrecht)