(1792-1845) Romanticism French painter (Paris)
(1410-1461) Northern Renaissance French painter. His career is unusually well documented for a provincial artist of his date (he was active in Aix, Arles, and Avignon), but there are only two extant works that are certainly by him. These are the Virgin of Mercy (1452) in the Musée Condé at Chantilly, painted in collaboration with an obscure artist called Pierre Villatte, and the Coronation of the Virgin (1454) in the Musée de l'Hospice at Villeneuve-les-Avignon. They are both highly impressive works, uniting Flemish and Italian influence and having something of the monumental character of the sculpture of Charonton's region. Indeed, they show Charonton to have been a painter of such commanding stature that there is an increasing tendency to attribute to him the celebrated Avignon Pietà (Louvre, Paris), the greatest French painting of the period.
(1767-1849) Romanticism French painter
CHASE, William Merritt
(1849-1916) U.S. portrait, landscape, genre and still-life painter. He went to Munich in 1872 and worked under F. Wagner and K. von Piloty; after returning to the U.S.A. he gained a great reputation as a teacher.
(1819-1856) Romanticism French historical and portrait painter and engraver. C. was born in the French West Indies; he studied in Paris and Rome, chiefly under Ingres, but was later influenced by *Delacroix and the Romantics, particularly ø his use of colour and his choice of subjects. In the Chaste Susanna this combination of firm drawing with Romantic feeling can be seen. C. painted murals for a number of churches and in the Palais D'Orsay and fashionably romanticized versions of African life; he engraved several sets of ills to Shakespeare.
(1560-1616) Baroque French graphic artist
(1829-1896) Realism French sculptor (Paris)
(1763-1810) Neoclassicism French sculptor
(1613-1676) Baroque French graphic artist (Paris)
(1774-1832) Romanticism French painter (Paris)
(1942- ) American
(1836-1932) French colour lithographer, a pioneer of the *poster, e.g. the series for the Circus Rancy in the mid-1860s. 'La Cherette', the happy, vivacious girl of his posters, was the toast of the t88os and 1890s. His flat interlocking shapes and use of colour are reflected in such works as Seurat's Le Cirque.
CHERICO, Francesco Antonio del
(active 1450-70) Early Renaissance Italian illuminator (Florence)
(1953- ) Argentina, Buenos Aires. (Surrealism).
CHEVALIER, Guillaume Sulpice (see GAVARNI, Paul)
(1804-1866) Romanticism French graphic artist (Paris)
(1946- ) Italian painter, one of the new figurative, *Neo-Expressionist artists who came to prominence in the late 1970s along with the Germans *Baselitz and *Kiefer and the American *Schnabel.
chiaroscuro (It. light-dark). In painting this refers to the use of strong contrasts of light and shade for dramatic impact, as in the paintings of Caravaggio and Rembrandt.
(1926- ) Italian. Visual Poetry
(1939- ) U.S. controversial feminist artist (organizer of the 1st Feminist Art Program in the U.S.A. in 1970). Her most famous work is the installation, The Dinner Party (1974—9), 'a symbolic history of women's achievements and struggles', executed by about 400 women working as ceramicists, needle-workers, china painters, etc. It represents 39 successful women with place settings at the triangular-shaped table, with ceramic plates on an embroidered runner, set on a porcelain floor of triangles painted in gold with the names of 999 'supporting' women. In 1980—5 she created The Birth Project, consisting of 100 pieces and 85 exhibition units, using various needlework techniques. C. and her husband have been working on a complex project on the Holocaust since 1987.
(1758-1839) Neoclassicism Italian painter (Venice)
CHIMENTI, Jacopo (see JACOPO DA EMPOLI)
(1551-1640) Mannerism Italian painter (Florence)
(1756-1813) Neoclassicism French sculptor
CHIRICO, Giorgio de
(1888-1974) Italian painter born in Greece where he studied painting in Athens. *Bocklm and *Klinger influenced him during studies in Munich, and 15th-c. painting during a stay in Italy. C. worked in Paris (1911 — 15) and came into close contact with the avant-garde movement and the poet *Apollinaire. Fie was then painting, in what he later called his *metapliysical' style, pictures of strange pseudo-classical buildings, shown in exaggerated perspective framing empty squares and dreamy sculpture. This dream-like quality was increased by the juxtaposition of unexpected objects m an incongruous setting painted with calm objectivity. His 2nd *'Surrealist' phase was characterized by mannequins, mechanical drawing instruments and strange haunted interiors. The work of this period is considered among the highest points of pictorial modernism. From 1929 his work took an entirely new turn, developing into a mannered naturalism and after 1933 he openly repudiated the modern movement.
CHODOWIECKI, Daniel Nikolaus
(1726-1801) Rococo Polish painter (Berlin)
(1789-1795) Japan Artist
(1942-2007) American abstract painter. Lyrical Abstraction, Color field and Abstract expressionism.
CHRISTO full name Christo Javacheff
(1935- ). U.S. artist born in Bulgaria who made his mark by wrapping public buildings and landscapes. Wrapped ("oast, Little Bay, Australia (1969) draped 1 million sq. ft (9300 sq. m.) of coastline in plastic sheeting. Running Fence, completed in 1976 in California, was described by C. as '40 kilometres of diaphanous white fabric running over the hills, emerging from the sea and disappearing into the sea again." In his extraordinary homage to Monet, Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, C,reater Miami, Florida (1980—3), 6 million sq. ft (560,000 sq. m.) of pink and shiny polypropylene fabric was used around 11 small islands, transforming them into waterhlies. The work was seen for 2 weeks in May 1983. The Umbrellas, Japan—USA (1984—91) literally linked the two countries by the simultaneous erection of an enormous number of blue and yellow umbrellas. All C.'s installations are time-based and site-specific and are planned over several years. The documentation of the complex preparatory planning stages, of fund raising and of political, environmental and bureaucratic procedures with the drawings and collages, etc. are all that remains of these temporarily installed works which after their brief realization are subsequently only memories.
(1400—72?) Early Netherlands painter. He was made a master at Bruges in 1444. He may have been a pupil or assistant of Jan van Eyck, and all his pictures have been confused with the greater master's at some time. It is still not clear whether C. visited Italy and was thus responsible for transmitting the style and technical achievements of the best northern painting to Antonello da Messina and other Italian painters. The delightful Portrait of a Lady by Ñ is a major work of the Netherlands school.
CHRISTIAN, Johann Josef
(1706-1777) Rococo German sculptor
(1410/20-1475/76) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Bruges)
CHURCH, Frederic Edwin
(1826-1900)Romanticism American landscape painter in the Romantic tradition of the *Hudson River school; a pupil of T. Cole.
CHURRIGUERA, José Benito
(1665-1725) Baroque Spanish architect
(active 1470-1510) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Lucca)
(1628-1719) Baroque Italian painter (Bologna)
(1706-1770) Baroque Italian painter (Verona)
CIGOLA, Giambattista (see GIGOLA, Giambattista)
(1769-1841) Romanticism Italian painter
(1559-1613) Mannerism Italian painter (Florence)
CIMA da Conegliano
(1459-1517/18) Early Renaissance Venetian painter strongly influenced by Giovanni Bellini. His many works include a Virgin and Child.
(1240-1302) Medieval Florentine painter. Cimabue's reputation as the 1st artist of the Italian Renaissance rests upon his mention by Dante in a famous passage, which, literally trs., states that ' Cimabue believed he held the field in painting, but now the cry goes out for Giotto so that the fame of the former is obscured.' Tradition may be right in calling Cimabue. the teacher of Giotto. He was also believed by Vasari and others to be the painter of the Rucellai Madonna now given by most authorities to Duccio. However, in spite of difficulties of attribution which may never be resolved, it seems certain that Cimabue, or another Tuscan artist, was responsible for the allimportant break with the rigid conventions of painting in Byzantine art, giving greater scope to the natural, as opposed to the conventional ami stylized form, and in choosing from a far wider range of subjects. Cimabue is known to have been in Rome in 1272 and is documented to have been working on the mosaic figure of St John in the apse of Pisa cathedral in 1302. No attributions except for the St John are certain, but Cimabue. was probably the painter of the very damaged frescoes in the choir of the upper church and ot the Madonna Enthroned with Four Angels and St Francis in the lower church at Assisi. The superb Crucifix, a second Crucifix, the large Madonna and Child Unthroned and a few other works are given to Cimabue. on the grounds of style and the authority of tradition which dates back almost to his own lifetime.
(1502-1593) Mannerism Italian painter (Spain)
(1529-1599) Mannerism Italian sculptor (Florence)
CIONE, Andrea di (see ORCAGNA)
(1308-1368) Medieval Italian sculptor (Florence)
CIONE, Nardo di (see NARDO DI CIONE)
(active 1343-66) Medieval Italian painter (Florence)
(1517/24-1596) Mannerism Italian painter (Rome)
CITTADINI, Pier Francesco
(1616-1681) Baroque Italian painter (Bologna)
(1381-1457) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Florence)
(1875-1911) Lithuanian composer and later painter of quasi-abstract works given musical titles, e.g. Sonata of the Stars. From 1906 until his death he worked in St Petersburg where he exhibited with The * World of Art group.
(1435-1501) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor
(1538-1613) Mannerism Flemish painter (Bruges)
CLAEISSENS, Pieter the Younger
(1540-1623) Mannerism Flemish painter (Bruges)
CLAESZ, Aertgen, Pieter van (see LEYDEN, Aertgen van)
(1498-1564) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter (Leiden)
(active 1580-after 1609) Baroque Dutch goldsmith (Amsterdam)
(1597-1661) Baroque Dutch still-life painter. From a few commonplace objects standing on part of a sideboard or table he created an uncommon, almost mystical harmony between each of these objects and a plain background. He used brownish tones occasionally enlivened by a brighter colour.
CLAEYS, Jean Claude
(1843- 1919) French painter. In 1861 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied with François Picot and Isidore Pils. He sent the first of many contributions to the Salon in 1866, an Episode of a Conscript of 1813 (untraced). By 1868 he had joined the painter Henri Regnault in a visit to Spain, where he was evidently impressed by Moorish architecture and influenced by the Spanish Orientalist painter Mariano Fortuny y Marsal; Clairin’s Volunteers of Liberty: Episode from the Spanish Revolution (untraced) was exhibited at the Salon of 1869. From Spain, Clairin and Regnault travelled to Tangier, where Clairin made a close study of local costume and constructed a house and studio in partnership with Regnault.
(1864-1943) French sculptor of whose work little remains and who for many years was best known as the mistress and muse of Auguste Rodin. She was also the sister of Paul Claudel, whose journals and memoirs provide much of the scant information available on his sister's life.Between the ages of about 5 and 12, Camille Claudel was taught by the Sisters of Christian Doctrine. When the family moved to Nogent-sur-Seine, the educationof the Claudel children was continued by atutor. Camille had little formal education from that point on, but she read widely in her father's well-stocked library. By her teenage years she was already a remarkably gifted sculptor, and her abilities were recognized by other artists of the time. When in 1881 her father was once again transferred, he moved his family to Paris. There Camille entered the Colarossi Academy (now the Grande Chaumière) and met a lifelong friend, Jessie Lipscomb (later Elborne). Her first extant works are from this period.
Claudel and Rodin probably first met in 1883. Shortly thereafter she became his student, collaborator, model, and mistress. While continuing to work on her own pieces, she is believed to have contributed whole figures and parts of figures to Rodin's projects of that period, particularly to The Gates of Hell. She continued to live at home until 1888, when she moved to her own quarters near Rodin's studio at La Folie Neubourg. By 1892 her relationship with Rodin had begun to crumble, and by 1893 she was both living and working alone, though she continued to communicate with him until 1898. From this point on she worked ceaselessly, impoverished and increasingly reclusive. She continued to exhibit at recognized salons (the Salon d'Automne, the Salondes Indépendents) and at the Bing and Eugène Blot galleries, though just as often she would utterly destroy every piece ofwork in her studio. She became obsessed with Rodin's injustice to her and began to feel persecuted by him and his “gang.” Alienated from most human society, living at a great distance from Paul—the one family member close to her—her condition overwhelmed her. On March 10, 1913, she was committed by force to an asylum at Ville-Ivrard. In September 1914 she was transferred to the asylum of Montdevergues, where she remained until her death.
(1600-1682) Baroque French landscape painter and draughtsman. Little is known about his personal life. He went to Rome as a youth, and is thought to have earned his living as a pastrycook before returning to Paris in 1625. He lived m Rome from 1627, devoted to his work and famous for his picturesque landscape compositions. To prevent forgeries he recorded his paintings in a portfolio of drawings, the Liber V'eritatis, in the coll. of the Duke of Devonshire since c. 1770, publ. in mezzotint in 1777. C. was a passionate observer of light and atmospheric changes, and he made numerous line and brush drawings of dawn and dusk, working out or doors. Many ot these studies are now in the Print Room of the 13.M., London. Compared with the landscapes of N. *Foussin, his contemporary, G.'s work is more sensual and atmospheric and his drawings retain the spontaneity of an impression. He painted many large compositions — biblical, mythological, religious and pastoral subjects, views of Rome and sea views which have made him famous and influential. C. was a stimulus and inspiration to the great landscape painters of the 17th—19th cs, Hubert Robert, Watteau, Wilson and Turner, who painted his Dido Building Carthage in emulation of C.
(1952- ) Italian figurative, *Neo-Expressionist artist who, along with *Chia, *Kiefer, *Schnabel, etc. came to prominence in the late 1970s.
CLERCK, Hendrik de
(1570-1630) Baroque Flemish painter (Brussels)
(1814-1883) Romanticism French sculptor
CLÈVE, Corneille van
(1646-1732) Baroque French sculptor (Paris)
CLEVE, Cornelis van
(1520-after 1570) Mannerism Flemish painter (Antwerp)
CLEVE, Joos van
(1485-1540) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Antwerp) Cleve Joos van. *Joos van Cleve
CLODION Clodion Claude Michel
(1738-1814) Rococo French sculptor. He produced many statuettes of pastoral figures but his sensual manner fell out of favour in the period following the Revolution; he then turned to monumental sculpture.
(1940- ) U.S. artist of portraits — heads from photographs — sometimes associated with *Pop art and a pioneer of *Photo Realism, but also related to *Minimalist aesthetics through the use of grid points.
CLONNEY, James Goodwyn
(1812-1867) Romanticism American painter
(1510-1572) Mannerism French court portrait painter, miniaturist and draughtsman, son of Jean Ñ. His work, e.g. portrait of the apothecary Pierre Zuthe (1562) shows Florentine influence. His drawings were more meticulous and his paintings more brilliant and more elaborate than his father's and he acquired a great contemporary reputation.
(1485/90-1541) Northern Renaissance Flemish portrait painter, miniaturist and draughtsman; father of Francois C. He worked at the court of Francis I of France. His paintings show earlier Flemish influence but his drawings in black or red chalk have the solid modelling of form typical of the Italian Renaissance.
(1498-1578) High Renaissance Italian illuminator (Rome)
COCHIN, Charles-Nicolas I
(1688-1754) Baroque French graphic artist (Paris)
COCHIN, Charles-Nicolas II
(1715-1790) Rococo French graphic artist (Paris)
(1510-1570) Mannerism Flemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
COCK, Jan Wellens de
(1490-1529) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Antwerp)
COCK, Paul de
(1724-1801) Rococo Flemish painter (Bruges)
(1604-1670) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1599-1678) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
COECKE VAN AELST, Pieter
(1502-1556) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Brussels)
(1654-1735) Baroque Flemish graphic artist
COELLO, Alonso Sanchez
(1531/2-1588) Spanish court portrait painter, pupil of *Mor. His figures are stiff and melancholy but elaborate details of dress are given meticulous care, e.g. Portrait of a Young Man.
(1642-1693) Late Baroque Spanish painter, influenced by J. de Carreno and the last important representative of the Madrid school. Of his huge decorative works his masterpiece is La sagrada forum (1685—90), a religious and historical picture with portraits of Charles II and his court, composed to give the illusion of being a continuation of the sacristy.
(active 1660s) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
COLANTONIO Colantonio Niccolo (Antonio).
(1420-1460) Italian painter. A certain ‘Cola de Neapoli’ is documented in Rome in 1444, but he cannot be definitely identifed with Colantonio. The main source for the reconstruction of Colantonio’s activity is Pietro Summonte’s letter of 1524 to the Venetian Marcantonio Michiel on the history of the arts in the Kingdom of Naples. Despite the small number of undisputed works, scholars unanimously assign to Colantonio a primary role in the history of Neapolitan painting in the period of Aragonese rule between 1440 and 1470. In those years Naples was the capital of a vast realm and a centre of culture and art where many international styles came together.
(1801-1848) Romanticism British-born U.S. landscape painter, a founder of the *Hudson River school. Ñ considered his allegorical and religious pictures his best work but these have been far less influential or lastingly popular than his Romantic landscapes of the Hudson Valley.
(1636-1681) Baroque Italian painter
(1599-1656) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
(1640-1710) Baroque Dutch painter
(1737-1801) Baroque Italian sculptor (Turin)
(1724-1793) Baroque Italian sculptor (Turin)
(1680-1744) Baroque Irish painter
(1825?-1881) British painter, an original member of the *Pre-Raphaehte Brotherhood; he painted An Incident in the Life of St Elizabeth of Hungary (1851) according to their ideals. The breaking of his engagement to Christina Rossetti was the occasion of many of her saddest and most exquisite poems.
(1748-1821) Neoclassicism French sculptor
(1430-1512) Northern Renaissance French sculptor
COLYER, Kollier (see COLLIER, Edwart)
(1640-1710) Baroque Dutch painter
(1526-1612) Mannerism Flemish sculptor
(1560-1638) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
COMPE, Jan ten
(1713-1761) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
(1680-1764) Baroque Italian painter
(1868-1909) English- Australian painter and a key figure in the Heidelberg School, arguably the beginning of a distinctively Australian tradition in Western art.
(1538-1599) Mannerism Flemish painter
CONINXLOO, Gillis van
(1544-1607) Mannerism Flemish painter
(1933- ) American artist (film, assemblage, drawing, sculpture, painting, collage, and photography, among other disciplines).
(1776-1837) Romanticism British landscape painter. Born at East Bergholt, Suffolk, the son of a miller, C. worked for a time in his father's windmills, which he said later taught him to study 'the natural history of the skies'. He was encouraged in drawing by a village amateur and copied from Girtin and Claude. In 1795 he came to London determined to be a painter, and in 1799 entered the R.A. as a student. He grew impatient of the ltalianate landscape painting of the time, which was still under the spell of Wilson, and in 1802 he returned to Suffolk, writing the famous letter in which he says: 'there is room enough for a natural painture. Apart from discouraging periods in London painting portraits Ñ now gave his time wholly to teaching himself how to reproduce every effect of changing light and weather in the skies and the river meadows of the Stour. The work of these years was little known or appreciated until 1888 when over 300 drawings and paintings were given to the nation by C.'s daughter. This superb coll., now at the V. & A., contains sketches for many of his major paintings in oil, as well as cloud studies, flower pieces and large watercolours such as the Study of a Tree. 'Lights — dews — breezes — blooms — and freshness' could be used to sum up the impression they give. But if the results were lyrical, the study behind them was hard, slow and not materially rewarding. Gradually C. evolved an infinitely subtle modulation of greens and a strict, though hidden, sense of composition. Recognition of his genius was almost equally slow. Although he continued to exhibit large paintings at the R.A. almost every year, it was 1819 before he became an Associate and 1829 before he was an Academician. In contrast to this, his exhibition of the Hay Wain at the Paris Salon in 1824 won him a gold medal and caused great excitement among French painters. Delacroix, it is said, repainted his Massacre of Chios on seeing it. C.'s influence on the French *Barbizon school of landscape painters is undisputed and his paintings of ships and harbours, such as the brilliant sketch in oil, Brighton Beach, (Mothers or the large work, Marine Parade and Chain Pier, Brighton, were obviously a formative influence on Boudm. In Britain, despite continuing French enthusiasm, C. suffered from comparison with Turner and from the unfavourable opinion of Ruskin. C's art seemed, curiously enough, too easy and too ordinary when contrasted with that of the Pre-Raphaelites and Turner.