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Adoration Of The Shepherds
 
     
 
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A
AACHEN - AKOTANTOS
ALBA - AMEN
AMERLING - ANTROPOV
APELLES - ARTHOIS
ASAM - AYRTON
B
BABOCCIO DA PIPERNO - BAZZI
BEARDEN - BEYEREN
BIAGIO D'ANTONIO - BOSSUIT
BOTERO - BROWN
BRUEGEL - BUYTEWECH
C
CABANEL - CARRA
CARRACCI - CHARDIN
CHARLET - CONSTABLE
CONSTANTE - CUYP
D
DAVINCI - DELFF
DELL - DOYEN
DRAKE - DYCK
E
EAKINS - EYCK
F
FABISCH - FOUQUIER
FRA - FYT
G
GABO - GIAQUINTO
GIBSON - GORO
GOSSAERT - GYSELS
H
HACKAERT - HIRST
HOBBEMA - HUYSUM
I
IBBETSON - IVES
J
JACOB - JUSTUS
K
KAHLO - KYHN
L
LEONARDO - LUYCKX
M
MABUSE - MAZZUOLI
MECKENEM - MYN
N
NAIVEU - NUZZI
O
OBICI - OVERBECK
P
PACE - PHILLIPS
PIAMONTINI - PYRGOTELES
Q
QUADE - QUINTIJN
R
RABEL - RIZZOLI
ROBBIA - RYSBRACK
S
SACCHI - SHOULBERG
SIBERECHTS - SYRLIN
T
TABARA-TUTTLE
U
UBERTI - UYTTENBROECK
V
VACCARO - VUYSTINCK
W
WAEL - WYNANTS
X
XAVERY-XUL
Y
YANEZ - YEPES
Z
ZAGANELLI - ZÜRN
 
 
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CONSTANTE, Theo
(born 1934) Ecuadorian Abstract Informalist painter.
CONTUCCI, Andrea (see SANSOVINO, Andrea)
(1467-1529) High Renaissance Italian sculptor
COOLIDGE, Cassius Marcellus
(1844-1934) United States painter best known for a series of nine paintings of anthropomorphized Dogs Playing Poker. Born in upstate New York to abolitionist Quaker farmers, Coolidge was known to friends and family as "Cash." While he had no formal training as an artist his natural aptitude for drawing led him to create cartoons for his local newspaper when in his twenties. He is credited with creating Comic Foregrounds, life-size cutouts into which one's head was placed so as to be photographed as an amusing character. In 1903, Coolidge contracted with the advertising firm of Brown & Bigelow of St. Paul, Minnesota, to create sixteen oil paintings of dogs in various human poses. Nine of them depict dogs playing poker. On February 15, 2005, two of these much imitated paintings, A Bold Bluff and Waterloo, went on the auction block expecting to fetch between $30,000 and $50,000 but surprisingly sold for $590,400. The auction set an auction record for Coolidge, whose previous top sale was $74,000. In 1910 Coolidge painted "Looks Like Four of a Kind" in the same style as his earlier "Dogs Playing Poker" series. His paintings inspired American illustrator Arthur Sarnoff who is famous for his Dogs Playing Pool style paintings, and hundreds of other imitators.
COORNHERT, Dirck Volkertsz
(1522-1590) Mannerism Dutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
COORTE, Adriaen
(active 1683-1707) Baroque Dutch painter (Middelburg)
COPLEY, John Singleton
(1738-1815) Rococo English U.S. painter. From 1774 he lived first in Italy, then in Britain, where he was greatly influenced by *Reynolds and *West. Having won a reputation as a portrait painter, he embarked on large historical paintings, e.g. Death of Major Pierson (1783) in which C. paints himself as a child fleeing with his family from the battle. This expansion of a small incident to the proportions of a panorama was copied in both French and English 19th-c. painting.
COPPO DI MARCOVALDO
(1225-1274) Medieval Italian painter (Florence)
COQUES, Gonzales
(1614-1684) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
CORBUSIER *Le Corbusier
CORDELIAGHI, Andrea (see PREVITALI, Andrea)
(1480-1528) High Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
CORDIANI, Antonio (see SANGALLO, Antonio da, the Younger)
(1483-1546) High Renaissance Italian architect (Rome)
CORDIER, Charles-Henri-Joseph
(1827-1905) Romanticism French sculptor
CORDIER, Nicolas
(1565-1612) Baroque French sculptor (Rome)
CORDOBA, Pedro de
(active 1470s) Early Renaissance Spanish painter (Cordoba)
CORINTH, Lovis
(1858-1925) German painter. Corinth studied at Konigsberg Academy (1876—80) and the Academic Julian, Pans (1884-5). He became one of the leaders of German Impressionism, joining the Munich *Sezession; but his late style — e.g. his paintings of the Walchensee — comes close to *Expressionism, developing from his interest in dramatic scenes and facial expression using *impasto, and very free brush work.
CORNACCHINI, Agostino
(1683-1754) Baroque Italian sculptor (Rome)
CORNEILLE DE LYON
(1500/10-after 1574) Mannerism French painter (Lyon)
CORNEILLE, Michel I
(1601-1664) Baroque French painter (Paris)
CORNEILLE (Cornells van Beverloo)
(1922- ) Belgian artist, a member of Reflex group and a founder of the international *Cobra group.
CORNEILLE de Lyon
(1534-1574) Dutch portrait painter working at Lyons. The few-surviving works attributed to him are similar in style to the portraits of F. Clouet.
CORNELIS VAN HAARLEM (Cornelisz Cornells)
(1562-1638) Dutch Mannerist painter of portraits and biblical and mythological subjects; a pupil of P. Aertsen.
CORNELISZ VAN OOSTSANEN, Jacob
(1472-1533) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter (Amsterdam)
CORNELISZ, Cornelis (see CORNELIS VAN HAARLEM)
(1562-1638) Mannerism Dutch painter (Haarlem)
CORNELIUS, Peter von
(1783-1867) Romanticism German painter, for a time a member of the *Nazarene group before settling in Munich, where he did much work, notably large-scale frescoes.
CORNELL, Joseph
(1903-1972) U.S. *assemblage artist. His 3-dimensional 'collages' of everyday objects enclosed in heavy picture-frame boxes, glass and sometimes mirrors, suggest a remote private world, surreal in time and space. Works include Medici Slot Machine (1942) and the Uclipse Series (early 1960s).
COROT, Jean-Baptiste Camille
(1796-1875) Realism French painter of landscape and portraits. Trained-in the classical tradition of French landscape, founded chiefly on Poussin, C. went to Italy in 1825, and returned there many times. There are 3 distinct styles in his painting. His early classical landscapes, painted in rich panels of colour, often in the full glare of an Italian noon, e.g. View of the (Colosseum, influenced Cezanne and other Post-Impressionists in their composition by tonal contrasts instead of strict drawing. In the 2nd style are the soft and silvery woodland scenes painted from the 1850s to his death, e.g. Ville d'Avray. Finally he painted a few portraits and studies of women, e.g. Woman with a Pearl. The last are of a very high quality and have recently won recognition.
CORRADINI, Antonio
(1668-1752) Baroque Italian sculptor
CORRADINI, Bartolomeo di Giovanni (see CARNEVALE, Fra)
(1425-1484) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Urbino)
CORREGGIO, Antonio Allegri da
(1490-1534) High Renaissance Italian painter called after his birthplace in Emilia. C. worked all his life in the district around Parma, yet he seems to have been aware to a remarkable degree of the innovations m painting m Rome, Florence and Venice. He was probably the pupil of F. Bianchi Ferrari, but an early visit to Mantua brought him under the influence of L. Costa and Mantegna. Soon, however, the revolutionary style of Leonardo had softened C.'s painting. He combined this softness, a sort of 'golden haze', which is characteristic of all his major work, with a strong sense of modelling and a delight in rendering flesh tones. Unlike most N. Italian painters of the time, he did not simply surrender himself to the style of Leonardo: instead of Leonardo's creation of an unearthly beauty, C.'s subjects, however idealized, are sensual and very much of this earth. There is no evidence that C. was ever in Rome, but he was certainly informed of Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel and those of Raphael in the Vatican Stanze. Qualities of all 3 of the leading painters of the High Renaissance are reflected in C.'s madonnas. Equally popular were his mythological subjects, e.g. Mercury Instructing Cupid Before Venus. Today, he is chiefly considered important for the boldness of his imagination. C. was one of the 1st major artists to experiment with the dramatic effects of artificial lighting, e.g. Agony in the Garden, in which the figure ot Christ alone lights the dark garden, and in Holy Night, m which the light comes from the Christ-child in the crib. C. is also seen as the vital link between the early experiments in illusionist painting of Mantegna at Mantua and the Baroque painters of ceilings. In Ganymede C. successfully depicts the figure of the shepherd carried into space by the bird of Jove. In his frescoes in the Camera di S. Paolo, Parma, or in the cupola of S. Giovanni Evangehsta, Parma, figures flying freely in space are seen from below, and in the Assumption a vision of a mass ascent into Heaven is rendered for the spectator in visually convincing terms.
CORT, Cornelis
(1536-1578) Mannerism Netherlandish graphic artist (Rome)
CORTE, Gabriel de la
(1648-1694) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
CORTE, Juan de la
(1590-1662) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
CORTESE, Giacomo (see COURTOIS, Jacques)
(1621-1676) Baroque French painter (Rome)
CORTESE, Guglielmo (see COURTOIS, Guillaume)
(1628-1679) Baroque French painter (Italy)
CORTONA Pietro da. *Pietro da Cortona Cosimo Piero di. *Piero di Cosimo
COSMA, Deodato di
(active around 1300) Medieval Italian sculptor (Rome)
COSMA, Giovanni di
(active 1290s) Medieval Italian sculptor (Rome)
COSSA, Francesco del
(1435-1477) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Ferrara) Cossa Francesco del (c. 1435— 1477). Ferrarese painter, possibly a pupil of C. Tura but influenced by Mantegna and Squarcione; some of his work, e.g. Autumn, follows Piero della Francesco. His masterly frescoes The Months (c. 1470) for the Palazzo di Schifanoia, Ferrara, depict, in a detailed style, fanciful scenes of court activities.
COSSIERS, Jan
(1600-1671) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
COSTA, Lorenzo
(c. 1460-1535) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Ferrara) Costa Lorenzo (1459/60-1535). Italian painter of the school of *Ferrara. With F. Francia he worked for the Bentivoglio family in Bologna painting portraits and religious subjects. In 1507 he succeeded Mantegna as court painter at Mantua.
COSTER, Arent
(active 1521-1563) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish goldsmith (Amsterdam)
COSTER, Jan
(active 1521-1563) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish goldsmith (Amsterdam)
COSWAY, Richard
(1742-1821) Rococo English miniaturist
COTELLE, Jean II
(1642-1708) Baroque French painter
COTER, Colijn de
(1446)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Brussels)
COTMAN, John Sell
(1782-1842). British painter and engraver of the *Norwich school and 1st professor of drawing at King's College, London. His austere early watercolours, landscapes often painted in broad washes of a minimum number of colours: yellows, greens, browns and blues, are now highly prized. C. visited Normandy in 1817—18 and 1820. He made many engravings of buildings there and in Britain ill. books on antiquities.
COTTINGHAM, Robert
(1935- ) American Photorealist Painter.
COTTON, Will
(1965- ) American painter. His primary subjects are candy and naked women, often in combination. Will Cotton lives and works in New York City. Will's paintings often feature baked goods such as a gingerbread house or a mobile home made of waffles. He has a professional oven in his studio and makes all of these himself. Then uses them as models for the paintings.
COUDER, Auguste
(1790-1873) Romanticism French painter
COURBET, Gustave
(181-1877) The leading French Realist painter of his time, C. was controversial both as an artist and as a public figure. Born at Ornans, Franche-Comte, he studied at Besancon and Pans, but was scornful of tuition and largely self-taught. He first took his subjects from life in the artists' studios in Pans and from the countryside around Ornans. In 1850 C.'s Burial at Ornans caused a sensation at the Salon. This enormous painting, containing over 30 life-size figures, was attacked on the alleged grounds that it presented the clergy as cynical and the peasants as brutalized. C. had intended it as a sincere, but not conventionally idealized, group portrait of the villagers with whom he had grown up. Seascapes, landscapes, flower paintings, studies of animals, nudes and a few large-scale genre paintings followed. All were savagely criticized. C. responded with an arrogant and angry wit which became celebrated. Many of the nudes are splendidly coloured — perhaps only Titian could have equalled the contrasts C. achieves between the tones of a fur or of a girl's hair against the tones of her flesh. The winter landscapes, e.g. Rocks al Ornans, have a rough and earthy texture which makes them at the same tune realistic and evocative.
In 1855 and 1867 C. withdrew from the Salon and held his own exhibition in the grounds, an action which was to set a precedent followed by the Impressionists. In 1871 he sided with the Commune, was made director of Museums and organized the destruction of the Napoleonic column in the Place Vendome. For these activities he was later imprisoned and heavily fined. He died in exile in Switzerland. By rejecting the ideals of both the Neoclassical and the Romantic schools and by choosing such subjects as the everyday life of the poor, C. prepared the way for artists as diverse as Millet and Degas. The independence of his behaviour and scorn of academic training had a lasting influence on the artists of Paris.
COURT, Jean de
(active 1555-1585) Mannerism French painter
COURT, Joseph-Désiré
(1797-1865) Romanticism French painter
COURTOIS, Guillaume
(1628-1679) Baroque French painter (Italy)
COURTOIS, Jacques
(1621-1676) Baroque French painter (Rome)
COURTOIS, Martial
(d. c. 1592) Mannerism French goldsmith (Limoges)
COUSIN, Jean the Elder
(1495-1560) Northern Renaissance French painter and designer. Working in Sens he designed the stained-glass window of St Eutropius (1536) for the cathedral and painted (probably) there the 1st great French nude, Eva prima Pandora. He designed the tapestries of the life of St Mammes (begun 1543) for Langres cathedral.
COUSIN, Jean the Younger
(1525-1595) Mannerism French painter (Paris)
COUSTENS, Pieter
(active 1453-1487) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter
COUSTOU, Guillaume I
(1677-1746) Baroque French sculptor
COUSTOU, Guillaume II
(1716-1777) Neoclassicism French sculptor (Paris)
COUSTOU, Nicolas
(1658-1733) Baroque French sculptor
COUTURE, Thomas
(1815-1879) Romanticism French painter Couture Thomas (1815—79). French portrait, historical and genre painter. His small commedia dell'arte paintings are popular, while the paintings on classical themes, such as the celebrated Romans of the Decadence (1847) and A Roman Feast have at times lost their appeal. *Manet was C.'s pupil for 6 years and undoubtedly learnt much from his strong, free brushwork and bold contrasts, shown especially in the sketches and a few fine landscapes.
COUWENBERGH, Christiaen van
(1604-1667) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
COWPER, Frank
(1877-1958) The Pre-Raphaelite.
COX, David
(1783-1859) Romanticism English painter
COXCIE, Jan Anthonie
(1650-1720) Baroque Flemish painter (Mechelen)
COXCIE, Michiel van
(1499-1592)Northern RenaissanceFlemish painter (Mechelen) Coxcie (Coxie) Michiel van (1499—1592). Flemish painter and engraver of religious subjects in the Raphaelesque style adopted after he visited Italy with his master B. van Orley. For Philip II of Spain he copied the Van Eycks' altarpiece The Adoration of the Lamb.
COXCIE, Raphael
(1540-1616) Mannerism Flemish painter (Mechelen)
COXIE, Jan Anthonie (see COXCIE, Jan Anthonie)
(1650-1720) Baroque Flemish painter (Mechelen)
COYPEL, Antoine
(1661-1722) Baroque French painter
COYPEL, Charles-Antoine
(1694-1752) Baroque French painter
COYPEL, Noel-Nicolas
(1690-1734) Baroque French painter
COYSEVOX, Antoine
(1640-1720) Baroque French sculptor
COZENS, Alexander
(1717-1786). One of the earliest British landscapists in watercolours; he was born in Russia and settled in Britain in 1746. He wrote several books; best known is A New Method of Assisting the Invention in Drawing Original Compositions oj Landscape (1785) describing his method of composing landscapes out of accidental ink blots (*blot drawing).
COZENS, John Robert
(1752-1797) Rococo English painter
COZZARELLI, Guidoccio
(1450-1516/17) Early Renaissance Italian illuminator (Siena)
CRABETH, Dirck Pietersz
(1520-1576) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish glass painter (Gouda)
CRAESBEECK, Josse van
(1605-1661) Baroque Flemish painter
CRAGG, Tony
(born 1949) British-German sculptor.
CRANACH, Lucas the Elder
(1472-1553) Northern Renaissance German painter, engraver and book ill. named after his birthplace. One of the most important of German artists, his training is obscure but his father was probably a painter. He travelled about the German states as an itinerant painter.
In 1505 he was at Wittenberg and by 1508 he had become court painter to the Electors of Saxony, a position he held tinder 3 successive Electors. He was ennobled, served as burgomaster and ran a large workshop which combined a studio, an apothecary shop and a printing and bookselling establishment. He became a personal friend of Luther and many of his woodcuts were designed to promote the Protestant cause. C.'s sons, Hans (d. 1537) and Lucas the Younger (1515—86), continued his workshop and his work is thus often hard to identify. Religious paintings, particularly madonnas depicted in landscapes, often with birds and animals in the foreground, survive to show the same love of detail as those of the *Danube school, e.g. Madonna and Child. His portraits, e.g. those of Luther, Duke Henry of Saxony and his Duchess are important documents of the time and some are among the 1st full-length portraits. C.'s rather awkward and self-conscious nudes are well known. One of the most natural and graceful of them is the Eve in Adam and Eve. Another painting which shows C.'s very individual, almost whimsical talent is the Judgement of Paris in which Paris, shown as an elderly warrior in full armour, presents the apple to one of a group of C-.'s nudes.
CRANACH, Lucas the Younger
(1515-1586) Northern Renaissance German painter
CRANE, Walter
(1845-1915) British painter, textile and wallpaper designer and ill. of children's books, a descendant of the *Pre-Raphaelites. He was associated with *Burne-Jones and W. *Morns. Baby's Opera (1877), which is typical of his style of delicate line and pastel colours, was done for the publisher Edmund Evans who had commissioned him and *Greenaway for a series of children's books.
CRAWFORD, Ralston
(1906-1978) American painter, printmaker and photographer of Canadian birth. After attending high school in Buffalo, NY, Crawford worked on tramp steamers in the Caribbean. In 1927 he enrolled at the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles, CA, and worked briefly at the Walt Disney Studio. Later that year he moved to Philadelphia, PA, where he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the Barnes Foundation in Merion Station until 1930. Crawford’s paintings of the early 1930s, such as Still-life on Dough Table (1932), were influenced by the work of Cézanne and Juan Gris, which he had studied at the Barnes Foundation. He was also attracted to the simplified Cubism of Stuart Davis, with its restricted primary colour schemes. After a trip to Paris in 1932–3, where he studied at the Académie Colarossi and the Académie Scandinave, Crawford’s flat, geometric treatment of architectural and industrial subjects in paintings such as Vertical Building (1934; San Francisco, CA, MOMA) led him to be associated with Precisionism. After 1940 he almost eliminated modelling from his work in favour of flat and virtually abstract architectural renderings, for example Third Avenue Elevated (1949; Minneapolis, MN, Walker A. Cent.). He taught at several schools in the United States and worked extensively in lithography and photography, in many cases using his highly formal black-and-white photographs as source material for his paintings.
CRAYER, Gaspard de
(1584-1669) Baroque Flemish painter (Ghent)
CREATURA, Il (see BIANCHI, Pietro)
(1694-1740) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
CREDI Lorenzo di
(1459-1537) Italian painter of the Florentine school and a fellow pupil of Leonardo da Vinci under Verrocchio. His style, which changed little, was formed by both these masters; his work shows the best professional manner of Florentine painting at the period. The Noli me Tangere is a typical work.
JOSEPH Crepin 
(1875-1948) Art brut
CRESPI, Daniele
(1590-1630) Baroque Italian painter (Milan)
CRESPI, Giovanni Battista
(1557-1632) Mannerism Italian painter, sculptor and architect of the *Lombard school. He was head of the Milanese Academy from 1620; Guercino was his pupil.
CRESPI, Giuseppe Maria
(1665-1747) Baroque Bolognese painter of religious subjects, portraits and genre who broke from the academic affectations of the Bolognese school. In deep tones and with heavy chiaroscuro he treated his subjects in naturalistic, even prosaic, terms, e.g. his pictures The Seven Sacraments. His son Luigi (1709—79) was a painter and the continuator of . Malvasia's lives of the Bolognese painters.
CRESPI, Luigi
(1709-1779) Rococo Italian painter (Bologna)
CRESTI, Domenico (see PASSIGNANO)
(1559-1638) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
CRETI, Donato
(1671-1749) Baroque Italian painter (Bologna)
CRIAERD, Matthieu
(1689-1776) Rococo French cabinet-maker (Paris)
CRISWELL,Warren
(1936- ) American self-taught painter, printmaker and sculptor.
CRIVELLI, Carlo
(1430/35-1495) Early Renaissance Italian painter of the Venetian school. Although trained, probably by the Vivarini in Venice, worked all his life outside the developing Venetian tradition, living in Ancona, Ascoli and other towns of the Marches where altarpieces painted by C, his relatives and pupils are still to be found. His style shows many diverse influences. In his use of swags of fruit and other classical motifs he follows the Paduan painters, but his decorative handling of gold and the stiffly posed figures belong to the conventions of the International Gothic style which was already out of fashion. was a highly original artist who combined such different elements within a hard, flowing, highly decorative style of draughtsmanship, matched only perhaps by Botticelli. 2 small Madonna and Child panels combine this mastery of decoration with a simple and direct piety. On a grander scale the Demidoff Altarpiece and the Madonna and Child retain the same grace and feeling with a greater impression of power. The Annunciation (1486) is a rare and outstanding work m which all the unusual talents of this artist reach their culmination.
CRIVELLI, Taddeo
(active 1451-1479) Early Renaissance Italian illuminator (Ferrara)
CRIVELLI, Vittore
(1440-1501/2) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
CROME, John 'Old Crome'
(1768-1821) British painter of landscape in oil and watercolour. C. was born in Norwich and was a founder of the Norwich Society of Artists. The influence of Dutch landscape painters (*Hobbema and *Ruisdael in particular) is obvious; so is his close study of Gainsborough and K. *Wilson when he was a copyist, but a powerful imagination informs his richly-coloured, formally composed yet romantically emotional compositions, e.g. Moonrise on the Yare, Mousehold Heath near Norwich. His son John Bernay C. (1794—1842) was also a landscape painter of the *Norwich school.
CROPSEY, Jasper Francis
(1823-1900) Realism American painter
CROSATO, Giovanni Battista
(1685-1758) Rococo Italian painter (Venice)
CROSS, Henri-Edmond
(1856-1910) French painter, an exponent of *Divisioinsm which he used with greater freedom than *Signac or *Seurat. His brilliant colours influenced the Fauves.
CRUIKSHANK, George
(1792-1878) Romanticism English graphic artist (London) Cruikshank George (1792-1878). British comic artist whose individual style showed traces of Gillray's influence. He first became widely known with his caricatures of the leading figures in the scandal of Queen Caroline's trial. His later satirical drawings attacked, among other things, the savage criminal code of his time, the slave trade, patronage and the evils of drink. His ills to Dickens (Sketches by Boz, Oliver Twist) are well known, but perhaps the works which best matched his own flair for the grotesque were the trs of fairy-tales by the Grimm brothers.
CRUQUIUS, Nicolaas Samuel
(1678-1754) Baroque Dutch painter
CRUYDENIER, Jacobus (see WALSCAPELLE, Jacob van)
(1644-1727) Baroque Dutch painter
CRUZ, Diego de la
(doc.1482-1500) Early Renaissance Spanish painter (Burgos)
CUERENHERT, Dirck Volkertsz. (see COORNHERT, Dirck Volkertsz.)
(1522-1590) Mannerism Dutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
CUGNOT, Louis-Léon
(1835-1894) Realism French sculptor
CULINOVIÇ, Giorgio (see SCHIAVONE, Giorgio)
(1436-1504) Early Renaissance Italian painter
CURRIN, John
(1962- ) American painter, best known for satirical figurative paintings which deal with provocative sexual and social themes in a technically skillful manner. His work shows a wide range of influences, including sources as diverse as the Renaissance, popular culture magazines, and contemporary fashion models. He often distorts or exaggerates the erotic forms of the female body.
Currin was born in Boulder, Colorado, and grew up in Connecticut, where he studied painting privately with a renowned traditionally trained artist from Odessa, Ukraine, Lev Meshberg. He went to Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he obtained a BFA in 1984, and received a MFA from Yale University in 1986.
In New York City in 1989 he exhibited a series of portraits of young girls derived from the photographs in a high school yearbook, and initiated his efforts to distill art from traditionally clichéd subjects. In the 1990s, when political themed art works were favored, Currin brazenly used bold depictions of busty young women, mustachioed men and asexual divorcés, setting him apart from the rest. He used magazines like Cosmopolitan along with old issues of Playboy for inspiration for his paintings. When criticized for being sexist, Currin did not deny it, but did remark that he felt that "at that time [he] didn't feel like a man and [he] didn't feel like a woman." In 1992 a subsequent exhibition focused, less sympathetically, on well-to-do middle-aged women. Nonetheless, by the late 1990s Currin's ability to paint subjects of kitsch with technical facility met with critical and financial success, and by 2003 his paintings were selling "for prices in the high six figures". More recently, he has undertaken a series of figure paintings dealing with unabashedly pornographic themes. He has had retrospective exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago and is represented in the permanent collections of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and the Tate Gallery.
Currin is based in New York City, where he lives with his wife and fellow artist, Rachel Feinstein.
CUYCK VAN MYEROP, Frans
(1640-1689) Baroque Flemish painter
CUYP, Aelbert
(1620-1691) Baroque Dutch painter influenced by earlier Dutch landscape painters, in particular Van Goyen. There is a strong element in his work of Italianate Dutch painters, such as Jan Both, especially in his handling of light. He painted portraits, stilllifes, seascapes, landscapes and town scenes, but is best known for studies of animals in the mellow light of a summer evening. Cuyp's work was greatly admired by British collectors and by British landscape painters of the early 19th century.

CUYP, Benjamin Gerritsz
(1612-1652) Baroque Dutch painter (Dordrecht)
CUYP, Jacob Gerritsz
(1594-1651) Baroque Dutch painter (Dordrecht)

 
     
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