(1478-1532) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter
GOTCH, Thomas Cooper
(1854-1931) English painter. He studied at Heatherleys in London (1876–7), at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp (1877–8) and with Alphonse Legros at the Slade (1878–80). At the Slade, Gotch became close friends with Henry Scott Tuke and Caroline Yates (fl 1880–96), whom he married in 1881. While studying in Paris in the early 1880s Gotch began to practise the plein-air approach later associated with the NEWLYN SCHOOL. Mental Arithmetic (1883; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria), painted in Newlyn, exemplifies the Newlyn painters’ concern with light conditions and traditional rural themes.
(1903-1974) U.S. *Abstract Expressionist painter, with *Rothko and others a founder of the *Ten Group, N.Y. (1935). Early m the 1940s, under the influence of primitive art, he invented the 'pictograph', the compartmental arrangement of symbolic calligraphic motifs. Later he concentrated on exploring the relationship between 2 contrasted shapes and produced a series of 'burst' paintings. His decorative works include murals for the Post Office, Yerington, Nevada (1939), and tapestries for the Synagogue, Millburn, New Jersey (1951).
(1510-1565) Northern Renaissance French sculptor
GOURMONT, Jean de
(1483-1551) Northern Renaissance French painter
(1732-1813) Rococo French goldsmith
(1589-1626) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
GOYA Y LUCIENTES, Francisco de
(1746-1828) Romanticism Spanish painter and graphic artist. Born at Fuendetodos, by 1760 G. was apprenticed in Saragossa to Jose Luzan, an artist who studied under Neapolitan masters. Francisco Bayeu, a former pupil of Luzan, had won fame in Madrid as assistant to the royal painter A. R. Mengs, and G. followed Bayeu, became his pupil and married his sister in 1773. Meanwhile, in 1771, Ñ had made a visit (which is rich in legend if not m facts) to Italy and he painted commissions for churches in the vicinity of Saragossa at the end of the same year. He settled in Madrid in 1775 and in 1776 was commissioned to paint cartoons for the royal tapestry works. At first G. followed conventional subjects, the court pastorals that relied on French and German Rococo models and the painting of Tiepolo and the Neapolitans. Soon, however, his own painting became noticeably freer and he introduced scenes observed from Spanish life, e.g. Stilt Walkers, Blind Guitarist. In the course of his work he was admitted to the Royal Ñolls where he engraved copies of Velazquez. Stimulated by Velazquez and by mezzotints after Gainsborough and Reynolds, he began to paint portraits. The 1780s record his increasing fame and an amazing variety of activity. In 1782 he portrayed the powerful minister Floridablanca; in 1786 he painted Charles in Hunting. He had many commissions from the Church including the 2 St Francis Borgia scenes for Valencia cathedral. Among small works he did for his own pleasure is the remarkable view of Madrid, Fiesta of San Isidero. In 1780 he had submitted his Crucifixion to the academy of San Fernando, being elected a member unanimously and appointed deputy director in 178 s:. At the court he was progressively pintor del reó (1786), pintor de camara (1789), and primer pintor de camara (1799). A change in his style is noticeable after his illness in 1792, which left him deaf. The portraits show greater insight, e.g. Dr Peral, and almost cruel objectivity in the famous Charles IV and Family. G.'s attachment to the duchess of Alba is celebrated in 2 fine portraits. He castigated the follies of the court, superstition and the vanity of women in Los eaprichos, his engravings of 1796-8. In the same period he painted the Maja Clothed and Maja Unclothed. His religious paintings arc revolutionarily free in technique, but obviously profoundly felt, e.g. Betrayal of Christ and the frescoes of S. Antonio de la Florida, Madrid. Subsequently G. chronicled the horrors of Napoleonic occupation in The Second of May (Uprising) and The Third of May (Executions) as well as in the engravings Disasters of War and his drawings. After the restoration of the reactionary Ferdinand VII, G. retired to the outskirts of Madrid. The decorations in his own house, called during his lifetime the House of the Deaf Man, now removed to the Prado, remain among the strangest and most original paintings ever painted both in subject and technique. They include Witches' Sabbath, Saturn Devouring his Child and Fantastic Vision. In a self-chosen exile in France G. continued to paint, engrave and practise lithography with undiminished vigour until his death. Milkmaid of Bordeaux, one of his last works, has a frenzied brushwork which looks forward to the effects of the Post-Impressionists. G. was the favourite of French writers such as Baudelaire. Artists of almost every major school have been influenced by his work in painting and the graphic arts from Delacroix and Gericault, Manet and Daumier to Kathe Kollwitz and Picasso.
GOYEN, Jan van
(1596-1656) Baroque Dutch painter (The Hague)
GOZZOLI, Benozzo Benozzo di Lese
(1420-1497) Early Renaissance Florentine painter. Best known for the Procession of the Magi frescoes in the Medici-Riccardi Palace, Florence, G. was an assistant to both L. Ghiberti and Fra Angelico before painting frescoes and altar-pieces in a number of towns, including Rome, San Gimignano and Pisa. A typical altarpiece is The Virgin with Saints.
(1628-1709) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
(1871-1960) Russian painter and a representative mainly of socialist realism. After being graduated from the department of law at Petersburg University he turned to art. Studied in the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts in 1894 – 1896 and in Munich. In his early years Grabar was influenced by the jugendstil and later by impressionism, but his paintings "The Chrysanthema" and "The Uncleared Table" are closer to neoimpressionism. In 1913 - 1925 he was the head of the Tretyakov Gallery. Grabar was recognized as a People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1956 for his work in the areas of portrait painting and historical revolutionary themes.
(1736-1813) Rococo German painter
(1571-1626) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1694-1757) Baroque Austrian painter
(1477-1543) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(1803-1847) Romanticism French graphic artist
(1755-1849) Neoclassicism French painter
(1450-1518) Northern Renaissance German sculptor (Munich)
(1841-1917) French illustrator, decorative artist and printmaker of Swiss birth. Before arriving in Paris in the autumn of 1871, Grasset had been apprenticed to an architect, attended the Polytechnic in Zurich and travelled to Egypt. In Paris he found employment as a fabric designer and graphic ornamentalist, which culminated in his first important project, the illustrations for Histoire des quatre fils Aymon (1883). Grasset worked in collaboration with Charles Gillot, the inventor of photo-relief printing and an influential collector of Oriental and decorative arts, in the production of this major work of Art Nouveau book design and of colour photomechanical illustration. Grasset used a combination of medieval and Near Eastern decorative motifs to frame and embellish his illustrations, but most importantly he integrated text and imagery in an innovative manner which has had a lasting influence on book illustration.
GRASSI, Giovannino de'
(active 1389-1398) Medieval Italian illuminator (Lombardy)
(1757-1838) Neoclassicism Austrian painter
(1682-1748) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
GRAVE, Josua de
(1643-1712) Baroque Dutch painter
(1699-1773) Baroque French graphic artist
GRAY, Cleve Gray
(1918-2004) American Abstract expressionist painter. Color Field painting and Lyrical Abstraction.
GREBBER, Pieter de
(1600-1652/53) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
GRECHETTO, Il (see CASTIGLIONE, Giovanni Benedetto)
(1609-1664) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
GRECO, El 'The Greek'. Domenikos Theotokopoulos see El GRECO
(1541-1614) Mannerism Spanish painter born in Crete. G. was trained as a painter of icons in the Byzantine tradition. About 1 s6o lie went to Venice (Crete was a Venetian colony) and became a pupil of Titian, then to Rome with an introduction to Cardinal Farnese from Giulio Clovio, of whom he painted a portrait. He attracted some attention and had pupils but c. 1570 moved to Toledo, where he lived until his death.
There are 3 main phases in his development. The pictures from the 1st phase (1570—80) show Venetian influence and especially Titian's: line drawing disappears, the use of colour is unlimited and the purely pictorial dominates (compare Titian's Colgolha with G.'s). G.'s dramatic use of light and shade and his portrait style indicate Tintoretto's influence-as well as that of Veronese, Bassano and perhaps Correggio. The Holy Trinity (1577-8) belongs to this period.
The 2nd phase (1580-1604) combines some Byzantine features (especially plastic forms) with a growing sense of rhythm and movement; it includes The Martyrdom of St Maurice (1580), commissioned by Philip II in 1580 but not accepted, and Colgotha (1590). The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586), a legendary theme, shows St Augustine and St Stephen lowering the body into the grave. The canvas is filled with figures, some of them portraits, and contrasts yet unifies the human and heavenly worlds, the austerity and solemnity of the lower part of the painting and the radiance of the Holy Ghost in the upper. The eye is led upwards to the figure of Christ, who is beseeched by John the Baptist to receive the count's soul. This spiritual exaltation is typical of G.; another example is The Despoiling of Christ (1583). The best of the portraits painted in this period is the Cardinal Don Fernando Nino de Cuevara (1598).
From about 1590 G. concentrated increasingly on portraying inner beauty and in the last phase achieved complete inward expression. From 1604 the rhythm and the simplicity of form and colour increase. The combination of Byzantine influence with rhythm, movement, intensity of expression obtained through elongation and distortion of form, use of light and unusual colour (the blues and lemons), convey the exaltation and radiance of the Holy Ghost. The later paintings include the Vision of St John the Divine (1610—14) and the View of Toledo (1608). The latter is no mere landscape: it is a vision in which nature has overcome man.
Works include: St Martin and the Beggar (1597—9): Resurrection of Chirist (1597—1604); Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1608—13); and Adoration of the Shepherds (1612-14).
(1739-1813) Rococo English graphic artist (London)
(1774-1853) Neoclassicism Belgian painter
(1564-1638) Baroque German graphic artist (Rome)
(1725-1805) Rococo French painter who became famous with the appearance of his Father of the Family Reading the Bible at the Paris Salon in 1755. Praised by Diderot and other moral philosophers, his large-scale genre subjects usually had a moral lesson to tell, as in Return from the Wineshop. They were made famous from Britain to Russia through engravings. However, it is Ins portraits, particularly of children (Boy with Lesson Book), which arc-preferred today. His art had declined even before the outbreak of the Revolution, which ruined him.
(1953- ) American artist specializing in spiritual and psychedelic art (or visionary art) that is sometimes associated with the New Age movement. His oeuvre spans a variety of forms including performance art, installation art, sculpture, and painting. Grey is a member of the Integral Institute. He is also on the board of advisors for the Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics, and is the Chair of Wisdom University's Sacred Art Department. He and his wife Allyson Grey are the co-founders of the Chapel of Sacred Mirrors, aka CoSM, a non-profit institution supporting Visionary Culture in New York City.
(1962- ) One of the first digital neo-surrealist artists, well known for numerous 3D, 2D, and matte painting images. Born in USSR during the Soviet Union Regime he did not adopt traditional and politically correct socialistic realism art style, but chose instead to follow the more controversial path of modern surrealism.
GRIFO DI TANCREDI
(active 1271-1303) Medieval Italian painter (Florence)
(1609-1675) Baroque German goldsmith
(1570-1619) Mannerism Flemish painter (Antwerp)
(c. 1525-1590) Mannerism Flemish painter (Antwerp)
(1678-1733) Baroque French painter (Paris)
GRIS, Juan Jose Gonzalez
(1887-1927) Spanish painter, sculptor and draughtsman. G. studied in Madrid, and settled in 1906 in Paris, where he became *Picasso's friend and one of the avant-garde. His development was slow. He earned a living as an ill. but continued to paint, and exhibited from 19T2. His work was noticed by the art dealer *Kahnweiler, who placed him under contract. G. as a result was able to devote himself entirely to painting and became a leading *Cubist, e.g. Portrait of Picasso (1912). He remained faithful to the Cubist aesthetic; his work developed from simplified, precise forms based on the world of objects (e.g. La Place Ravignan, Still Life in Front of an Open Window, 1915) to the monumental compositions of 1916-19, a flat coloured architecture. From this time he experimented with polychrome sculpture, inspired by *Lipchitz. His last period expressed his increasing preoccupation with colour, e.g. Cuitar with sheet of music (1926). G. regarded himself as a classical painter; for him a painting was a self-contained creation and within its context he used objects to express ideas.
GROENEWEGEN, Pieter Anthonisz van
(1600-1658) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
GROET, Adriaen de
(active 1562) Mannerism Netherlandish goldsmith
(1883-1969) U.S.-German architect and educator who, particularly as director of the Bauhaus (1919–28), exerted a major influence on the development of modern architecture. His works, many executed in collaboration with other architects, included the school building and faculty housing at the Bauhaus (1925–26), the Harvard University Graduate Center, and the United States Embassy in Athens.
(1771-1835) Neoclassicism French painter whose earlier work exerted a powerful influence on the development of Romanticism in France. His training by J.-L. *David and intellectual assent to classicism eventually stifled his temperamental bias towards Romanticism, and after David's death (1825) he took over the leadership of the outmoded classical school, produced unsatisfactory paintings and committed suicide. Among his important works are Napoleon Visiting the Plague-stricken at Jaffa (1804) and The Battle of Aboukir (1806).
(1893-1959) German *Expressionist painter and graphic artist best known for his pen and ink drawings satirizing the German nation during and after World War I; in 1933 he settled in the U.S.A. His own experiences of the war in the German army, as a civilian in Berlin (1916—17) and in a military asylum, made a searing impression. A founding member of the Berlin *Dada group, he was also part of the *New Objectivity movement. In his work he exposed with merciless and horrifying precision the officials and profiteers who lived off the war and, after it, the vice, the political chaos and the complacency of the bourgeoisie.
GRÜNEWALD, Matthias Matins Gothart Nithart
(1470/80-1528) Northern Renaissance German painter, born in Wurzburg, Bavaria. G. was trained in Alsace in the style of Schongauer, and travelled through Germany, living in Isenheim, Seligenstadt, Aschaffenburg and Mainz, where he was court painter to the Elector. He died in Halle, where he painted a series of pictures in the cathedral for the Elector of Mainz. G.'s masterpiece is the set of 10 paintings for the Isenheim altar (finished r. 1515; now at the Mus. Unterhnden, Colmar). They were intended to be seen in 3 groups which changed as panels were opened and shut: 2 scenes from the life of St Anthony flanking the carved centre-piece (r. 1505, by Backoffen) of St Anthony enthroned with SS Augustine and Jerome; the Annunciation, Concert of Angels, Virgin and Child and Resurrection; and the Crucifixion, St Anthony and St Sebastian (supposedly a self-portrait). Below these was the Pieta which disclosed the carved Christ and Apostles of the predella (also by Backoffen).
The spirit of the Renaissance is remote from G.'s work, but he imbued the medieval German art to which he adhered with an entirely original personal vision expressed in the distorted, tortured forms and strange colouring of the Crucifixions. His range is enormous, encompassing the horrifying Crucifixion and serene Virgin and Child of the Isenheim altar. The Karlsruhe Crucifixion — the greenish, blood-spattered body of Christ, its deformed limbs, where even the nails pinning the claw-like hands, the crown of thorns and the draperies are painted in the same tortured manner — is utterly different from the Madonna who stands in a beautiful garden, fresh and tender. The Mocking of Christ is filled with large-figures caught in frenzied movement. Christ, his eyes covered, is gripped by the hair by his assailant, whose fist is poised ready to strike; another, holding Christ's bonds, is about to lash him with the knotted end of a rope. The figure of Christ in this painting, abused and defiled, directly contrasts with that in the Resurrection, in which Christ ascends suffused with a golden celestial light. G. also painted The Meeting of Si Hrasmus and St Maurice which formed part of the Halle
(1644-1730) Baroque Flemish sculptor
(1720-1808) Rococo Italian painter (Venice)
(1712-1793) Rococo Venetian landscape painter and draughtsman, brother-in-law of *Tiepolo and son of a painter. His son Giacomo (1764—1835) carried on his workshop. G.'s development was slow and his early paintings lacked originality since he was mainly concerned with satisfying the popular demand for small religious and genre paintings. He absorbed the influence of his contemporaries *Canaletto and *Longhi but evolved a new type of landscape painting, which became very popular. He can be ranked with Constable, Turner and the painters of Barbizon as a pioneer of a new approach to landscape for his subjective use of light and atmosphere expressed with a nervous, calligraphic touch. In his maturity he portrayed Venetian social life brilliantly and accurately. He recorded the excitement of the Ascent in a Balloon and the ceremonial of the Doge embarking on the Bucintoro.
(1764-1835) Rococo Italian painter (Venice)
(1699-1760) Rococo Italian painter (Venice)
(active 1338-1368) Medieval Italian painter. He was the leading painter of his time in Padua and is first recorded there as a master in 1338. The origin of his eclectic but highly distinctive style is not to be explained in terms of the influence of an ill-defined regional Byzantinism, as posited in older accounts, but rather as an alert and discriminating synthesis of trends current in the Veneto following visits to the area by such artists as Giotto and Giovanni Pisano. Guariento’s style combines elements obviously drawn from Giotto’s work in Padua and elsewhere with a more overtly Gothic sense of line and rhythm and a dramatic approach to narrative, occasionally verging on caricature.
(1624-1683) Italian architect.
GUAYASAMIN, Oswaldo Guayasamin
(1919-1999) Quechua Indian and Ecuadorian master painter and sculptor.
(1802-1880) Romanticism French painter (Paris)
GUERCINO ('the squint eyed') Giovanni Francesco Barbien
(1591-1666) Baroque Italian painter. He was born at Cento near Ferrara and worked there for much of his life; he also worked in Rome (1621—3) and Bologna (from 1642). The Carracci, Caravaggio and the Venetian school were important influences on his development. Between 1616 and 1621 in a number of notable altarpieces he evolved a colouristic, painterly style which culminated in Aurora. This fine illusionistic painting was the model for many later Baroque ceiling paintings and makes an interesting comparison with Reni's more restrained treatment of the same subject (1613) in the Palazzo Rospigliosi, Rome. In Burial and Reception into Heaven of St Petronilla, also painted in Rome, G. abandoned the vigorous treatment of Aurora in favour of Annibale Carracci's type of classicism. The power and originality of his work steadily declined as he became involved in the Counter-Reformation under the influence of which he painted uninspired pietistic altarpieces, many of them in the manner of his rival Reni. On the death of Reni, G. took over his workshop in Bologna. The Royal Library, Windsor, has the best coll. of G.'s very fine drawings.
(1761-1836) Rococo French miniaturist
(1774-1833) Neoclassicism French painter, pupil of J.-N. Regnault. As an exponent of Neoclassicism he alternated between the styles of J.-L. David and Regnault but in either case produced work of extreme banality. Gericault and Delacroix studied under him.
GUGLIELMO DA MODENA (see WILIGELMO)
(active 1099-1120) Medieval Italian sculptor (Modena)
(1235-1310) Medieval Italian sculptor
(1625-1701) Baroque Italian sculptor (Rome)
GUIDO DA SIENA
(active second half 13th century) Medieval Italian painter (Siena)
(1581-1658) Baroque French sculptor
(1822-1905) Neoclassicism French sculptor
(1841-1927) French Impressionist painter. He was a friend of Ñ Pissarro and Cezanne and exhibited at the 1st (1874), and most subsequent. Impressionist exhibitions. Pale violet and orange predominate in his landscapes.
(1867-1942) U.S. Architect, decorator, and furniture designer, probably the best-known French representative of Art Nouveau. Guimard studied and later taught at the School of Decorative Arts and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (“School of Fine Arts”) in Paris. Although much of his work is more engineering than architecture, he considered himself an architecte d'art. His Castel Béranger apartment building at 16 rue La Fontaine, Passy, Paris (1894–98), was one of the first Art Nouveau edifices outside Belgium, where the style originated. Several entrance structures (1898–1901) for the Paris Métro (subway), of cast iron in plantlike forms, are his best-known works. The Place de la Bastille station suggests Chinese pagoda architecture as well as Art Nouveau. The elevations and decorative ironwork of his apartment houses at 17–21 and 60 rue La Fontaine (1911) are tasteful and restrained. More bizarre, perhaps because its setting permitted a freer treatment, is the Castel Henriette in Sèvres(1903). Guimard also designed an Art Nouveau synagogue, at 10 rue Pavée, Paris (1913).
GUNEY, Ismet Ismet Vehit Guney
(1932-2009) Cypriot cartoonist and painter, designer of the modern flag of the Republic of Cyprus.
GÜNTHER, Franz Ignaz
(1725-1775) Rococo German sculptor (Munich)
(1705-1788) Rococo German painter
(1913-1980) Born in Canada of Russian-Jewish emigre parents, moved to California 1919. He met *Pollock 1927. Initially adhering to the tradition of the Italian Renaissance, he became acquainted with the artists of the Mexican mural movement in 1932 and visited the studios of *Orozco and *Siqueiros, later becoming involved in mural projects, in association with De Kooning, Gorky and Pollock. In the late 1940s G. turned to lyrical abstract painting and his disciples dubbed his work 'Abstract Impressionism'. In the 1970s he returned to figurative paintings of cartoon-like simplicity of line and socially conscious subject matter. These works, usually on a large scale, were of great importance to the younger generation of neo-figurative artists.
GUTIÉRREZ, Juan Simón
(1643-1718) Baroque Spanish painter (Seville)
(1624-1677) Baroque Dutch goldsmith (The Hague)
(1912-1987) Italian *Social Realist painter. Co-founder of 'Fronte Nuovo delle Arte', also member of the Communist party. The vigour of his style and imagination transcended his polemical approach to subject matter.
(second half 17th century) Baroque Flemish painter
GYSELS, Pieter (see GIJSELS, Pieter)
(1621-1690) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)