AACHEN, Hans von
(1552-1615) German Mannerism painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II, he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.
(1894—1966) Finnish sculptor and painter and a major force in modern Finnish sculpture. His work in granite is classical in line despite its monumental character. Besides a number of female torsos and portrait heads, A. executed public monuments.
ABADIA, Juan de la
(active 1470-1490) Early Renaissance Spanish painter from Huesca.
(c 1500-1564) High Renaissance French potter
ABBATE, Niccolò dell'
(1509-1571) Mannerism Italian painter, worked in France (from 1552) and was, with Primaticcio, a leader of the school of *Fontainebleau. Abbate was stylistically influenced by the illusionism of Mantegna and the softness of Correggio, but more important was his characteristically Mannerist treatment of landscape, as in the Rape of Proserpine. There are similarities in his work to Dosso Dossi and also Patenier and the Antwerp school, and Abbate himself introduced Mannerism in landscape into France. Abbate’s major picture is The Story of Aristacus.
ABBEY Edwin Austin
(1852-1911) U.S. painter, R.A. of Britain. Abbey illustrated works by Robert Hernck, Oliver Goldsmith and Shakespeare, and painted the scenes of The Quest of the Holy Grail on the walls of the public library, Boston, Mass.
ABBOTT John White
(1763-1851) British landscape painter.
ABBOTT Lemuel Francis
(c. 1760-1803) British portrait painter, known for his portraits of Lord Nelson and the poet Cowper.
(1743-1809) Romanticism Danish painter. Abilgaard studied in Italy (1772—9). His style was classical and he favoured heroic subjects. Abilgaard painted little after 4 allegorical frescoes by him in the Royal Palace, Copenhagen, which he considered his best work, were burnt in 1794. Sketches of these together with many other works are preserved in the Royal Gallery, Copenhagen. B. Thorwaldsen was his pupil.
(born 1971) Turkish painter, Master of Arts in "Technology and Art" and in "Postmodernism".
(1940— ) U.S. artist and poet. Acconci turned to *Performance, *Installation and *Action and Body art (1969) attracted by the experimentation of groups such as The Judson Church, and the conceptual framework established by such artists as *LeWitt, *Andre, R. *Morris, *Kosuth, *Weiner, D. Graham, *Oppenhenn and *Burden. Acconci‘s most notorious work in the 1970s was Seedbed (1972) in which he lay under the floor of the gallery loudly voicing his sexual fantasies while masturbating. In the 1980s he started making constructions, e.g. Sub-Urb (1983) and furniture, e.g. Sleeping Dog Couch (1984).
(1700-1759) French Baroque sculptor, son of the sculptor Jacob-Sigisbert ADAM (1670-1747). In Rome (1723-33), he was strongly influenced by Bernini. His fountain Iriomphe de Neptune et d'Aniphitrile (1740) is at Versailles.
(1705-1778) French Baroque sculptor from Nancy.
(1935— ) Italian painter sometimes associated with European *Pop art. His paintings, frequently of bourgeois interiors, are in flat, bold colours, with objects outlined by strong, black lines. This allows an ironic play between figurative subject matter and abstract forms.
(1728-1792) Architect and designer, son of William Adam. He and his rival William Chambers were the leading British architects in the second half of the 18th century. After training under his father, he embarked on a Grand Tour in 1754; this ended early in 1758 when he settled in London rather than Edinburgh. There he established a practice that was transformed into a partnership with his younger brother James after the latter’s return in 1763 from his own Grand Tour. By then, however, the Adam style was formed, and Robert remained the partnership’s driving force and principal designer until his death. He not only developed a distinctive and highly influential style but also further refined it through his large number of commissions, earning fame and a certain amount of fortune along the way. Eminently successful, he left an indelible stamp on British architecture and interior decoration and on international Neoclassicism.
(1858-1945). U.S. sculptor, who studied in Paris. Adams's work includes the tympanum of St Bartholomew's Church, N.Y. (1902).
(1818—81). French portrait photographer and sculptor. His photographs with their use of heavy *chiairoscuro effects were praised for their approximation to 17th-c. Dutch paintings.
(1895-1949) Polish painter. Was influenced by Picasso and Leger. He travelled widely in Europe teaching for a tune at the Dusseldorf Academy with Klee and working with *Hayter at *Atelier 17.
ADRIAEN VAN UTRECHT (see UTRECHT, Adriaen van)
(1599-1652) Flemish Baroque painter.
(1587-1661) Flemish Baroque painter from Antwerp.
AELST, Willem van
(c. 1626-1683) Dutch Baroque still-life painter from Delft. He was a good draughtsman and vivid colounst. Aelst's still—lifesare distinguishable from those of other Dutch painters, being frequently littered with bric-a-brac of Renaissance antiquariamsm.
(1633-1690) Flemish Baroque painter (Antwerp)
AERT VAN ORT
(active 1490-1536)Northern Renaissance Flemish glass painter
(1508-1575) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter, working in Antwerp and Amsterdam, whose detailed and colourful genre and still-life paintings were highly popular and also stylistically influential on the 17th-century Netherlands genre school. Many of his religious paintings have been destroyed.
(born 1920) Portugal geometric abstractionist painter.
AGAM, Yaacov Agam
(born 1928) Israeli sculptor and experimental artist in optical and kinetic art.
(1767-1849) Neoclassicism Swiss painter (London)
AGOSTINO DI GIOVANNI
(active 1310-1347) Medieval Italian sculptor (Siena)
AGOSTINO VENEZIANO (see MUSI, Agostino dei)
(c. 1490-c. 1536) High Renaissance Italian graphic artist
(1899—1991) Born in Buenos Aires, settled in Britain 1911. Prominent among British Surrealist painters, who also made sculptures and assemblages: her work was included in the International Surrealist Exhibition, London 1936, and all other subsequent major exhibitions surveying Surrealism.
AGNOLO Andrea del * Andrea del Sarto
AGOSTINO di Duccio
(1418—81). Florentine sculptor mainly ot reliefs, possibly a pupil of J. della Quercia. His earliest independent work was probably the altar (completed by 1442) in Modena cathedral. His major work is at the Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini (architect *Alberti, painter Piero della Francesca). Agostino's style is essentially linear, his relief work is flat with no attempt at lllusionism.
AIVAZOVSKY, Ivan Konstantinovich
(1817-1900) Realism Russian painter
(?-1457) Medieval Greek painter (Crete)