Family of Flemish painters flourishing in the 16th and 17th cs whose most important members are listed alphabetically below. Various spellings of the name have been used such as the later 'BreugcT and 'Brueghel'. The greatest of the family, Pieter B. the Elder, was also its founder.
BRUEGHEL, Jan the Elder
(1568-1625) Mannerism Flemish painter, the son of P. B. the Elder; he painted flowers, landscapes and Garden of Eden subjects in a highly finished manner which won him the nickname 'Velvet B.'
BRUEGHEL, Jan the Younger
(1601-1678) Baroque Flemish painter, the close follower of his father, Jan B. the Elder. He often painted his highly finished flower studies and landscapes on copper.
BRUEGEL, Pieter the Elder
(1525-1569) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter. The last and one of the greatest of the early Netherlandish artists. Bruegel was named after his birthplace, but there is no general agreement which of 3 possible villages this was. Moreover, his name is variously spelt. He signed his work Bruegel and Brueghel, while he was nicknamed 'Bruegel the Droll' or 'Peasant Bruegel', by later writers on art to distinguish him from other members of the family of painters he founded. Even the date of Bruegel 's birth is uncertain, as are details of his training. Obviously an early influence on him was the work of Bosch (d. 15 16) and it is likely Bruegel was apprenticed to P. Coccke van Aelst, whose daughter he married in 1563. He was a master of the Antwerp Guild in 1551. Shortly afterwards B. journeyed extensively in Italy, probably as far south as Sicily, returning through the Orisons and the Tyrol. After his marriage B. moved from Antwerp to Brussels. There is much conjecture but little evidence regarding his position and attitude during the early years of the rebellion against Spanish rule, the religious controversy and the horrors of civil war. When Bruegel died he left a family of imitators. He had established almost all the categories of later Flemish painting and his own paintings were highly priced. Yet, despite the admiration of Rubens and the fact that most of his paintings were quickly acquired for royal colls, Bruegel's reputation declined until the great revival of interest in his work at the beginning of the 20th c. Bruegel earned a living for many years with drawings for engravings publ. by the humanist printseller, Hieronymus Cock. He probably painted in watercolour technique, but this work has been lost. About 40 paintings in oil and a few in tempera on linen survive. Briefly, the outstanding feature of B.'s style is its independence of Italian models at the time when most of his contemporaries in the Netherlands were already Romanists. In colour he favoured a muted palette of blue-greens, blue-greys and a wide range of browns, frequently enlivening the picture with points of clear colour, often yellow or red. He extended painting to include the countryside in all seasons, moods and weathers, following medieval Books of Hours and tapestries. He also showed much the same sympathetic but unsentimental interest in those who worked on the land. Between the labourers and their environment B. manages to establish a wholly original relationship in visual terms, e.g. between the lean hunters and the countryside locked in winter — Hunters in the Snow, the feeling of well-being won from nature — The Corn Harvest', or a steel-cold winter's day providing the background to an act of human brutality — The Massacre of the Innocents. At times the landscape almost overpowers the activities of men, as the dramatic Alpine settings do in both life Suicide of Saul and 'The Conversion of St Paul, or the turbulent water in Storm at Sea. The Peasant Dance and Peasant Wedding provide 'close-tips' of the peasants' happier hours. Throughout his life B. used everyday sayings and proverbs to draw personal and highly sophisticated morals on the condition of man. The mastery he came to achieve over his vast material, observed and imagined, can nowhere be better seen than by comparing Ins early, over-crowded Netherlandish Proverbs with the brilliantly composed late work 1 lie Blind Leading the Blind. 2 works showing the power of his imagination at its greatest are Dulle Ciriet ami The Triumph of Death. The 1st, a satanic landscape peopled by all the devils of medieval folk-lore, has been a stimulus to poets, painters and also film producers in the 20th c, while 'The Triumph of Death, with its almost mechanical destruction of human life by thousands, has appeared grimly appropriate to aspects of our times.
BRUEGHEL, Pieter the Younger ) Bruegel (Brueghel, Breugel) Pieter the Younger
(1564-1638) Mannerism Flemish painter, the son of Pieter B. the Elder, he imitated the fantasy subjects of his father, earning the nickname 'Hell B.'. *Snyders was his pupil and his son, Pieter B. Ill, was also a painter.
(1631-1697) Baroque Flemish painter (Italy: Antwerp 1631 - Naples 1690)
(1617-1675) Baroque Flemish painter
BRUGGHEN, Hendrick ter (see TERBRUGGHEN, Hendrick)
(1588-1629) Baroque Dutch painter (Utrecht)
BRUGMAN, Willem Claesz.
(active 1641-1665) Baroque Dutch goldsmith (Delft)
(1377-1446) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Florence)
(1377-1446) Italian sculptor
BRUNO di Majo
(1944- ) Tuscany, Italy. (Fantastic realism, Vienna School of Fantastic realism).
(1938- ) Austrian painter, graphic artist and writer. (Happenings, Performance art, Fluxus).
(1516-1567) High Renaissance Italian painter (Verona)
was born in 1945 in Moscow. Like the majority of Jews of his generation in the Soviet Union he was growing up in complete ignorance of his Jewish heritage until he started studying Jewish tradition in the 70s. Until today the myth of Judaism and the myth of communism have remained his two central topics which he treats in series of paintings and sculptures. Bruskin is ranking among the most celebrated contemporary Russian artists, since his works achieved sensational results at the 1988 auction of Sotheby's in Moscow.
Parallel to painting (his most renown works are the Alefbet and Fundamental Lexicon series and the monumental triptych Life Over All in the Berlin Reichstag) Bruskin develops traditional arts and crafts techniques as artistic media. In the style of Soviet chinaware (which was often employed to convey propagandistic statements) he created for instance the cycles Alphabetic Truths (34 porcelain plates, 1998) or Life is Everywhere (25 porcelain sculptures, 1998-99). With On the Edge his present series of bronze sculptures Bruskin returns to larger sculptures. By pursuing motives from Soviet monuments, which were omni-present during his youth and had already inspired paintings from the late 70s on, he investigates with subtle irony the complex implications of depiction and deliverance.
Bruskin's complex work does not only scrutinize the significant myths of Judaism and the Soviet Union but also refers to the problem of alienation of the individual from the society and his vulnerability to the catastrophe and transitoriness of cultural contexts.
(1662-1732) BaroqueItalian cabinet-maker, sculptor and draughtsman. He worked almost exclusively in wood. His first teacher was his father, Jacopo Brustolon (d 1709), also a sculptor, and he then trained with the painter Agostino Ridolfi (1646–1727). In 1677 Andrea was sent to Venice to the workshop of Filippo Parodi, to whose elegance, dynamism and technical virtuosity he was always indebted, although he soon established his own style. Brustolon came from an alpine area that had a long tradition of craftsmanship in wood. His achievement was to transpose techniques that had been associated with everyday craftsmanship on to the highest artistic level
(1493-1555) Northern Renaissance German painter (Cologne)
BRUYN, Guillaume de
Prominent Greek painter of the early 5th c. bc so called because 5 cups decorated by him have the potter's mark Brygos epoisen — 'made by Brygos'. About 170 vessels have been identified as painted by him. Stylistic characteristics are violent movement, tenseness of line in drapery folds and economy of line in depicting mule figures. His style was much imitated.
BRYULLOV, Aleksandr Pavlovich
(1798-1877) Romanticism Russian painter
BRYULLOV, Karl Pavlovich original name Charles Bruleau
(1799-1852) Romanticism Russian painter. Bryullov also spelled Briullov, Bryulov, Brulov, Brullov, or Brulow Russian painter who combined technical proficiency and classical academic training with a Romantic spontaneity to produce some of the liveliest examples of Russian art of the period. Bryullov was descended from French Huguenots, and his father was a sculptor. (The family name was Russified in 1821.) Bryullov was educated at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts (1809–21). He studied in Italy from 1823, painting his best-known work, the monumental “Last Day of Pompeii” (1830–33), while there; it brought him an international reputation. Though he painted other large canvases with historical subjects, none was as successful as“ Pompeii.” Much of his continuing reputation rests on his more intimate portraits and his watercolours and travel sketches.
(1956- ) Swiss artist currently residing in Berlin and Zurich. Since the 1980s, Buetti has been working with multimedia such as tinted photographs of glamorous celebrities, brand names and lightboxes in order to create powerful, thought-provoking art. Exhibitions of his work have been featured in galleries worldwide. Daniele Buetti gets pictures airbrushed beautiful women and scars their faces to show emotion and feelings within the work.
(1928- ) French painter who trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. The expressive draughtsmanship of his early near-monochromatic paintings has become — under the pressure of his phenomenal public success — a mannerism.
BUNCE, Kate Elizabeth
(1856-1927) The Pre-Raphaelite.
BUONARROTI, Michelangelo. *Michelangelo
BUDAPEST MASTER (see MASTER of Budapest)
(active c. 1500) Early Renaissance Spanish painter (Castile)
BUECKELAER, Joachim (see BEUCKELAER, Joachim)
(1530-1574) Mannerism Flemish painter (Antwerp)
(active 1315-1336) Medieval Italian painter (Pisa)
(1475-1554) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
(1459-1521) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Florence)
BUHL, André-Charles (see BOULLE, André-Charles)
(1642-1732) Baroque French cabinet-maker (Paris)
(active 1337-1378) Medieval Italian painter (Siena)
BUON, Bartolomeo (see BON, Bartolomeo)
(active 1421-1464) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor
BUON, Giovanni (see BON, Giovanni)
(1355-1443) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor
BUONAMICI, Agostino (see TASSI, Agostino)
(1578-1644) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
(1465-1535) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
BUONERI, Francesco (see CECCO DEL CARAVAGGIO)
(active 1610s) Baroque French painter (Rome)
BURCH, Cornelis Jansz. van der Burch
(active 1579-1614) Baroque Dutch goldsmith (Delft)
BURCH, Hendrick van der
(1627-1666) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
(born 1938) French conceptual artist.
BURGH, Hendrick van der (see BURCH, Hendrick van der)
(1627-1666) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft)
(1941- ) British artist and a writer. Burgin was born in Sheffield in England. He studied art at the Royal College of Art, in London,from 1962 to 1965 (A.R.C.A., 1st Class, 1965) before going to the United States to study at Yale University (M.F.A. 1967). He taught at Trent Polytechnic from 1967 to 1973 and at the School of Communication, Polytechnic of Central London from 1973 to 1988. From 1988 to 2001 Burgin lived and worked in San Francisco . He taught in the History of Consciousness program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he became Professor Emeritus of History of Consciousness]. In 2000 he was Robert Gwathmey Chair in Art and Architecture, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York. In 2001, he was appointed Millard Professor of Fine Art at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Burgin has also taught at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. In 2005 he received an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Sheffield Hallam University (Hon. DUniv). Burgin first came to attention as a conceptual artist in the late 1960s. He has worked with photography and film, calling painting "the anachronistic daubing of woven fabrics with coloured mud". His work is influenced by theorists and philosophers such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. In 1986, Burgin was nominated for the Turner Prize for his exhibitions at the Institute of Contemporary Arts and Kettle's Yard Gallery in Cambridge and for a collection of his theoretical writings (The End of Art Theory) and a monograph of his visual work (Between).
(1473-1531) Northern Renaissance German painter of portraits and religious subjects and woodcut designer. Fie studied under his father Thomas and *Schongauer and was a friend of Durer. He was affected by Venetian painting and was one of the 1st Germans whose work showed Italian influence. He is best remembered for his striking woodcuts, e.g. the 2 series Triumph of the Emperor Maximilian I with 135 cuts and The Wise King with 337.
(1882-1967) and Vladimir (188?-1917). Prominent Russian Futurists. They studied painting first in Odessa and then in Munich under Azbe. In 1907 in Moscow they came into contact with Exter, Goncharova and Larionov, with whom they organized a number of small exhibitions. In iyio they contributed to the 1st anthology of Russian Futurist poetry; they made friends with Kandinsky, subsequently contributing to *Blaue Reiter exhibitions and Almanac. In 1911 David met Mayakovsky and encouraged him to write poetry; subsequently they together devoted themselves to writing and propaganda for the 'new art'. In 1918 David left Russia and later worked in the U.S.A. in a primitivist style.
(1886–1917) Russian avant-garde artist (Neo-Primitivist and Cubo-Futurist), book illustrator.
BURNE-JONES, Edward Coley
(1833-1898) British painter and decorative artist who became a painter under the influence of D. G. Rossetti and was associated with the second, 'romantic' phase of Pre-Raphaelitism. He was strongly affected by Botticelli and Mantegna when visiting Italy in 1859 and 1862. B. lacked the vigour and social ideals of the Pre-Raphaelites; based on literary themes, chiefly from Greek mythology, Chaucer and Malory, his mystic, romantic and unhistorical pictures represented a dream world of escape from 19th-c. industrialism. He worked in subdued tones and a linear manner which contributed to Art Nouveau. He made influential designs for stained glass for his friend W. *Morris, for whom he also ill. books, e.g. the Kelmscott Press Chaucer (1897).
BURGOS, Juan de
(active 1450s) Early Renaissance Spanish painter (León)
(1905-1976) British painter and theatrical designer; member of Unit I (1933). The work of Signorelli and Goya, Grosz and the Surrealists, influenced the development of his fantastic, richly imaginative art, winch also mirrored his love of Spain and Mexico. B. first specialized in scenes of the underworld, exposing the decadence and disillusionment which existed between the wars but also indulging his taste for the flamboyant and bizarre. With the Spanish Civil War and World War II his work acquired menacing and tragic overtones. Fie worked in watercolour, usually on a large scale.
(1915-1995) Italian painter. After medical studies he began painting while a prisoner of war in Texas — an experience which had a strong formative influence on his work and, in part, dictated his choice of such seemingly unpromising materials as torn sacking, rusty metal and burnt wood, e.g. Legno Nero e Rosso (1960).
(1922-2005) Belgian sculptor. (Kinetic art). Pol Bury began his artistic career as a painter, working in the Jeune Peintre Belge group and the Cobra group. In 1953, he took up sculpture and was one of the leading artists of the Kinetic sculpture movement. Four years later, Bury was incorporating electric motors into his sculptures. Later, he worked as a filmmaker and stage designer.
(1761-1823) Neoclassicism German painter
BUS, Sylvius (see BOS, Cornelis)
(1510-1566) Northern Renaissance Flemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
(1630-1701) Baroque English sculptor
BUSI, Giovanni (see CARIANI)
(1485-1547) High Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
BUSIRI, Giovanni Battista
(1698-1757) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
BUSTI, Agostino (see BAMBAIA)
(1483-1548) High Renaissance Italian sculptor (Milan)
BUTINONE, Bernardino Jacopi
(1436-1507) Early Renaissance Italian painter, who worked in Treviglio and Milan. B. was early influenced by Mantegna, later by Vincenzo Foppa, but his work retains traces of Lombard Gothic. In collaboration with *Zenale he painted frescoes in S. Pietro in Gessate, Milan (r. 1489-93) and an altarpiece at Treviglio. Other work includes a triptych (1484).
BUTTERI, Giovanni Maria
(1540-1606) Mannerism Italian painter (Florence)
(1724-1801) Rococo Dutch graphic artist (Amsterdam)
BUYTEWECH, Willem Pietersz.
(1591/92-1625) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)