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FESHIN, Nikolai Ivanovich  
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FABISCH, Joseph-Hugues
(1812-1886) Romanticism French sculptor (Lyon)
FABRE, François-Xavier
(1766-1837) Neoclassicism French painter
FABRIANO, Gentile da Niccolo Di Giovanni Di Massio
(1370-1427) Italian painter of the beginning of the 15th century, whose few surviving works are among the finest examples of the International Gothic style. An early signed work by Gentile has stylistic affinities with Lombard painting and suggests that he was trained in the Lombard school. In 1409 Gentile was commissioned to decorate the Doges' Palace inVenice with historical frescoes, which were later completed by Il Pisanello. In 1414–19 Gentile was in Brescia working for Pandolfo III Malatesta. His final important cycle of frescoes was begun in Rome in the Church of St. John Lateranshortly before his death. As with the frescoes in Venice, they were completed by Il Pisanello.
His surviving masterpiece, the “Adoration of the Magi,” was completed in 1423 for the Church of Santa Trinità, in Florence. Its graceful figures are clothed in velvets and rich brocades, and the Magi are attended by Oriental retainers, who look after such exotic animals as lions and camels. Its delicate linearity and vibrant colours enhance the effect of rich exoticism. The decorativeness of its elegant, courtly style continued to influence Florentine artists throughout the century and presented a counterattraction to the austererealism introduced by Masaccio. Gentile also produced a number of Madonnas, such as the altarpiece known as the Quaratesi Polyptych (1425), which show the Mother and Child, regally clad, sitting on the ground in a garden.
(1624-1673) Baroque Dutch painter
(1622-1654) Baroque Dutch painter (Delft) Name used by Carel Pietersz (1623—54), Dutch painter, killed in the explosion of the powder-magazine at Delft, which probably also destroyed many of his paintings. The few surviving pictures show him to have been technically very accomplished. He was the pupil of Rembrandt and the master of Vermeer. One of his most interesting paintings is the small View of Delft in which the unique planned perspective shows F.'s interest in creating optical illusions. Other works are: Man in a Fur Cap, the strong Self-portrait and the popular Goldfinch.
FABRO, Luciano
(1936- ) Italian artist of the *Arte Povera circle who was influenced in certain respects by *Manzoni, *Klein and, closer at hand, L. *Fontana. His objects and installations operate as metaphors. As with other European artists with post-*Minimalist tendencies after the late 1960s, F.'s work is suggestive of theoretical concerns, ideological disillusionment and memories o{ the collective imagination, as in the 'Italia' series (1968—75), e.g. Golden Italy (1971), Cristo-Buddha-Zaratustra (198 1) and La Dialettica (1985).
FABRY, Emile
(1865- 1966) Belgian painter and designer. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels under Jean-François Portaels, and worked with the designer Cir Jacques. His early Symbolist work, influenced by Maurice Maeterlinck (1862–1949), expresses anguish through its depiction of wild-eyed and deformed figures. He described this as his ‘nightmare period’, exemplified by The Offering (1894; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.). In 1892 Fabry took part in the first exhibition of the group ‘Pour l’Art’, which he founded with Jean Delville, and in 1893 and 1895 exhibited at the Salons de la Rose+Croix, established by Joséphin Péladan. In the late 1890s he began to work with the Art Nouveau architects Victor Horta and Paul Hankar. At this point his work became more serene and increasingly monumental. He designed the interior of the sculptor Philippe Wolfers’s villa, built by Hankar, and also the interior of Horta’s mansion Aubecq.
FALCA, Pietro (see LONGHI, Pietro)
(1702-1783) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
FALCONE, Aniello
(1607-1656) Baroque Italian painter (Naples)
FALCONET, Étienne-Maurice
(1716-1791) Rococo French sculptor. He was a pupil of *Lemoyne and director of sculpture at Sevres (1757—66). For Sevres biscuitware he produced many graceful Rococo models. His masterpiece was a monumental equestrian statue of Peter the Great in the Baroque tradition.
FALCONET, Marie-Anne (see COLLOT, Marie-Anne)
(1748-1821) Neoclassicism French sculptor
(active 1450-1500)Early RenaissanceItalian painter (Venice)
FALK, Robert
(1886-1958) Russian painter and a founder of the Muscovite *Knave of Diamonds group. Cezanne was the most important influence on F., although during the 1920s he gradually evolved a more personal vision and technique. Still-life, portrait and landscape subjects predominate. As a teacher in Moscow he was important to less academic young artists.
(1620-1688) Baroque Italian sculptor (Rome)
FANTIN-LATOUR, Ignace-Henri-Jean-Theodore
(1836-1904) French painter, especially of flowers and a few large group portraits. F.-L. studied under his father and under Courbet. In his Homage to Manet (1899) and Homage to Delacroix (1864) he included many of the leading artists of his day and he repeated this formula for group portraits or writers and musicians. F.-L. was friendly with a number of the most advanced contemporary artists. Of his many studies of flowers Bouquet of Dahlias is typical.
(1537–1550) Italian painter and printmaker. He was one of Francesco Primaticcio’s main assistants at Fontainebleau. Although no painted work or drawing by him can be identified, he is recorded as having designed some of the grotesques for the vault of the Galerie d’Ulysse. From 1542 to 1545 he was one of the principal etchers of the Fontainebleau school, producing more than 100 etchings in that short time. Around 1542–3 he reproduced many drawings by Giulio Romano and Rosso Fiorentino, recording many of the latter’s compositions for the palace of Francis I. Because he always worked from preparatory drawings rather than from the frescoes themselves, Fantuzzi’s etchings are an invaluable source of information about lost drawings by Rosso. Later he worked from Primaticcio’s designs, especially his drawings after antique statues. While Fantuzzi’s earlier etchings are violent in their handling and light effects (e.g. his etching after Rosso’s The Sacrifice; see Zerner (1969), no. 27), his maniera later became more careful and softer (e.g. Apollo and Marsyas, after Parmigianino; see Zerner (1969), no. 77). Fantuzzi has often been mistakenly identified with Antonio da Trento. 
(1591-1678) Baroque Italian sculptor (Naples)
FARINATI, Battista (see ZELOTTI, Gian Battista)
(1526-1578) Mannerism Italian painter
(1524-1606) Mannerism Italian painter (Verona)
FARMAKOPOULOS, Demetrios Mimis Farmakopoulos
(1919-1996) Greek painter whose main recurring theme is space and the future.
FASOLO, Bernardino
(1489-after 1526) High Renaissance Italian painter (Genoa)
(1898-1964) French Painter.
(1617-1697) Baroque Flemish sculptor and architect. His father, Hendrik Faydherbe (1574–1629), a painter and sculptor, died when Lucas Faydherbe was 12, so it was his stepfather, Maximiliaan Labbé (d 1675), who between 1631 and 1634 trained him as a sculptor. Faydherbe then travelled to Antwerp to continue his training in the studio of Peter Paul Rubens, under whose guidance he executed a number of ivory-carvings, such as Leda and the Swan (Paris, Louvre). Abandoning a planned trip to Italy, Faydherbe in 1640 married and settled in Mechelen.
FEDDES, Pieter
(1585-1634) Baroque Dutch painter
(1871-1956) Painter, born in N.Y. of German-American parents. All the early influences upon him were subsequently reflected in the subjects of his paintings: music, toy making, Manhattan skyscrapers, trains, bridges and ships. F. studied music in Berlin, then became a cartoonist, first for German, later for French and U.S. journals. In Paris he came into contact with the work of *Delaunay and the *Cubists. From 1913 he made Germany his home, associating himself with the *Blaue Reiter group under F. Marc, and later teaching at the *Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau. In 1924, F. joined W. Kandinsky, P. Klee and A. von Jawlensky in Die *Blaue Vier ('The Blue Four'). Named among the 'degenerate' artists by Hitler's government, F. returned to the U.S.A., where his teaching, writings and last water-colours were influential on the birth of * Abstract Expressionist painting.
FELICI, Vincenzo
(active 1667-1707) Baroque Italian sculptor (Rome)
FENDI, Peter
(1796-1842) Romanticism Austrian painter (Vienna)
(1895-1956) German Expressionist Illustrator,
FERRARI, Gaudenzio
(?-1546) Italian painter of the Lombard school. His major works, dramatic and overcrowded with figures, are frescoes in several chapels on the Sacro Monte, Varallo; a screen depicting scenes from the life of Christ, an altarpiece and frescoes in S. Oristotoro, Vercelli; and the Choir of Angels in the dome of S. Maria dei Miracoh, Saronno.
FERRARI, Gregorio de
(1610-1686) Italian sculptor. He was apprenticed at an early age to the sculptor Tommaso Orsolino ( fl 1616–?1674) of Genoa and was in Naples by 1637, when he is recorded as a marble-worker in the Corporazione di Scultori e Marmori. He remained in Naples for about nine years, during which time he carved several statues, including life-size ones of St Andrew, St Thomas and two members of the D’Aquino family kneeling in prayer (1641–6; S Maria la Nova, chapel of S Giacomo della Marca) as well as decorative and garden sculpture for villas of the nobility. Some of this work was done in collaboration with Cosimo Fanzago.
(1792-1856) Neoclassicism Hungarian sculptor
FERGUSON, William Gowe
(1633-after 1695) Baroque Scottish painter
(active 1500-1542) High Renaissance Portuguese painter (Viseu)
(1475-1545) High Renaissance Spanish painter (Seville)
(1576-1636) Baroque Spanish sculptor (Valladolid)
(?-1657) Baroque Spanish painter
(1480-after 1521) High Renaissance Spanish painter
FERRARI, Defendente
(1490-after 1531) High Renaissance Italian painter (Piedmont)
FERRARI, Gaudenzio
(1475-1546) High Renaissance Italian painter (Lombardy)
FERRARI, Gregorio de
(1647-1726) Baroque Italian painter (Genoa)
(1605-1654) Baroque Italian painter
(1610-1686) Baroque Italian sculptor
FERRETTI, Giovanni Domenico
(1692-1768) Baroque Italian painter (Florence)
(1634-1689) Baroque Italian painter (Rome)
FERSTEL, Heinrich von
(1828-1883) Austrian architect. He was a member of the second generation of historicist architects in Vienna, who continued and developed the pioneering work of such architects as Karl Rösner, Eduard Van der Null and August von Siccardsburg. These three, who represented the Romantic period of early historicism in Austria, were Ferstel’s teachers from 1848 to 1850 at the Akademie der Bildenden Kunste in Vienna, and VAN DER NÜLL & SICCARDSBURG in particular were important early influences. After leaving the academy, Ferstel joined the architectural firm of his uncle Friedrich Stache (1814–95), whom he assisted until 1853 in building castles and country houses for the high nobility in Bohemia. Domestic architecture continued to play an important part in his work. Before long, however, he was winning major architectural competitions, such as the international competition (1855) for the Votivkirche (1856–79) in Vienna.
FESHIN, Nikolai Ivanovich
Russian artist. He trained in his father’s gilding and joinery workshop, which produced iconostases. In 1901–8 he studied at the Higher Artistic School of the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg; the last two years were spent in the studio of Il’ya Repin. The figure composition of his diploma painting Woman Cutting Cabbages, which depicts the preparation of cabbages for the winter, is of a lively folkloric nature. After graduation in 1909 he moved back to Kazan where he began teaching at a local art school. From 1910 to the early 1920s Feshin revealed himself as a master of psychologically sensitive portraits saturated with colour, such as those of Varya Adoratskaya (1914) and T. A. Popova (1917; both Kazan’, Mus. F.A. Tatarstan). He was an accomplished colourist: he used bold, bright colours that seemed to be lit from within, and at the same time he knew how to extract enchanting effects from the harmonious combination of subdued tones in a restrained golden-ochre of silver-lilac range. In a series of genre pictures, which remained in sketch form, he produced memorable depictions of the drama of the revolutionary period. In 1983 he moved to USA, built a house-studio in Taos, New Mexico, decorated with elements carved in "new folklore" style. Traveled in Mexica and Japan in 1930ties. He made a number of ethnographic sketches which he transformed into lithography. Moved to Los-Angeles. Became very popular as a portraitist. Died in Santa-Monica. In 1981 the Feshin Institute with a museum and an educational centre was set up in his house.
FESSARD, Etienne
(1714-1777) Rococo French graphic artist (Paris)
FETI, Domenico
(1589-1623) Baroque Italian painter, trained in Rome. He was court painter at Mantua (1613-21) but settled in Venice in 1622. Characteristic works such as The Good Samaritan are richly coloured, broadly executed cabinet pictures of biblical subjects as genre. In these he was influenced by A. Elsheimer, Rubens and the Venetian school.
FEUCHTMAYR, Joseph Anton
(1696-1770) Baroque German sculptor
FEUERBACH, Anselm Friedrich
(1829-1880) Romanticism German painter of classical subjects and portraits whose painting marked the end of German academic classicism. He was influenced by *Couture in Paris and spent many years in Italy. His best work, e.g. the portrait Nanna (1861) and Orpheus and Eurydice (1860) is majestic and controlled, his inferior work sombre and artificial.
FIAMMINGO, Cornelio (see CORT, Cornelis)
(1536-1578) Mannerism Netherlandish graphic artist (Rome)
FIAMMINGO, Guglielmo, Andreas (see TETRODE, Willem Danielsz van)
(1525-1587) Mannerism Netherlandish sculptor
(1603-1660) Baroque Italian painter (Florence)
FIELD, Erastus Salisbury
(1805-1900) U.S. primitive artist, noted for his remarkable architectural fantasy. Historical Monument of the American Republic (c. 1876).
FIGINO, Giovanni Ambrogio
(1551-1608) Mannerism Italian painter (Lombardy)
FIGUEIREDO, Cristóvano
(active 1515-1543) High Renaissance Portuguese painter
(1400-1469) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Milan)
FILIGER, Charles
(1863-1928) French painter and engraver. He studied in Paris at the Académie Colarossi. He settled in Brittany in 1889, where he was associated with Gauguin and his circle at Pont-Aven, but he remained a mystic and a recluse. The Breton setting, with its stark landscape and devout peasant inhabitants, provided fertile ground for the development of Filiger’s mystical imagery and deliberate archaisms. Filiger’s friend, the painter Emile Bernard, characterized Filiger’s style as an amalgam of Byzantine and Breton popular art forms. The hieratic, geometric quality and the expressionless faces in his gouaches of sacred subjects such as Virgin and Child (1892; New York, A. G. Altschul priv. col.)   reveal Filiger’s love of early Italian painting and the Byzantine tradition. Evident too in the heavy outlines and flat colours of his work are the cloisonnism of the Pont-Aven school and the influence of Breton and Epinal popular prints. Filiger’s landscapes, such as Breton Shore (1893; New York, A. G. Altschul priv. col.), share with Gauguin’s paintings an abstract, decorative quality and rigorous simplification.
(1883-1941) Russian painter and graphic artist with a very individual style and vision in some ways reminiscent of Klee and the Surrealists. He was associated with the Russian *Futurist movement from the outset and designed the scenery for Mayakovsky's 1st play; F. also ill. a number of booklets of Futurist poetry. In 1925 he founded a school of analytical painting in Leningrad, dissolved in 1928, like all such private institutions in the U.S.S.R.
FINELLI, Giuliano
(1601-1653) Baroque Italian sculptor. He received his earliest artistic training and his gift for handling marble from his uncle, a stonecutter in the quarries at Carrara. In 1611 he accompanied his uncle to Naples, and there he entered the workshop of Michelangelo Naccherino, one of the most prominent Neapolitan sculptors. In 1622 he moved to Rome and almost immediately came to the attention of Gianlorenzo Bernini, who made him one of his principal studio assistants. In that capacity Finelli participated in a number of Bernini’s most important projects of the 1620s. The young sculptor’s virtuosity in carving marble and his facility in using the drill to achieve pictorial effects are nowhere more evident than in his contributions to Bernini’s group Apollo and Daphne (1622–4; Rome, Gal. Borghese). The delicately carved twigs and roots that spring from Daphne’s hands and feet are the work of Finelli. By 1629 his association with Bernini had come to an end, and he established himself as an independent artist with his marble statue of St Cecilia (1629–30) for the choir of S Maria di Loreto, Rome. While generically akin to Bernini’s St Bibiana (1624–6; Rome, S Bibiana), Finelli’s statue departs from Bernini’s dynamic conception and is reserved and more classicizing in style, closer to Alessandro Algardi’s stucco Saints in S Silvestro al Quirinale and to Pietro da Cortona’s painted Saints in S Bibiana.
FINI, Leonor
(1908- 1996) French painter, stage designer and illustrator of Argentine birth. She grew up in Trieste, Italy. Her first contact with art was through visits to European museums and in her uncle’s large library, where she gleaned her earliest knowledge of artists such as the Pre-Raphaelites, Aubrey Beardsley and Gustav Klimt. She had no formal training as an artist. Her first one-woman exhibition took place in Paris in 1935 and resulted in friendships with Paul Eluard, Max Ernst, René Magritte and Victor Brauner, bringing her into close contact with the Surrealists; her sense of independence and her dislike of the Surrealists’ authoritarian attitudes kept her, however, from officially joining the movement. Nevertheless her works of the late 1930s and 1940s reflect her interest in Surrealist ideas. She also participated in the major international exhibitions organized by the group.
FINOGLIA, Paolo Domenico
(1590-1645) Mannerism Italian painter (Naples)
(1580-1617) Mannerism Flemish painter
FINSONIUS, Ludovicus (see FINSON, Louis)
(c. 1580-1617) Mannerism Flemish painter
(1445-1525) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Perugia)
FISCHER, Johann Martin
(1740-1820) Rococo German sculptor
(1948- ) U.S. Neo-figurative painter, who rose to great international prominence in the late 1970s. Depicted U.S. suburbia in large-scale narratives of leisure, voyeurism and sexuality, often charged with hidden violence, e.g. Bad Boy (1981) and Digging Children (1982).
Fischl was born in New York City and grew up on suburban Long Island; his family moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1967. His own web site describes him as growing up " against a backdrop of alcoholism and a country club culture obsessed with image over content."His art education began at Phoenix College, then a year at Arizona State University, then California Institute of the Arts in Valencia, California, where he earned his BFA in 1972. He then moved to Chicago, taking a job as a guard at the Museum of Contemporary Art.His own website recounts, "It was in Chicago that Fischl was exposed to the non-mainstream art of the Hairy Who. 'The underbelly, carnie world of Ed Paschke and the hilarious sexual vulgarity of Jim Nutt were revelatory experiences for me.'"In 1974, he took a job teaching painting at Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, where he met painter April Gornik, with whom he moved back to New York City in 1978 and later married. Fischl worked and resided in New York City, but has recently moved to Sag Harbor, Long Island, New York with his wife, landscapist April Gornik, where they share a home and matching studios.  In addition, he is a senior critic at the New York Academy of Art.
Fischl has embraced the description of himself as a painter of the suburbs, not generally considered appropriate subject matter prior to his generation.  Some of Fischl's earlier works have a theme of adolescent sexuality and voyeurism, such as Sleepwalker (1979) which depicts an adolescent boy masturbating into a children's pool. Bad Boy (1981) and Birthday Boy (1983) both depict young boys looking at older women shown in provocative poses on a bed. In Bad Boy, the subject is surreptitiously slipping his hand into a purse. In Birthday Boy, the child is depicted naked on the bed. In response to 9/11, Fischl debuted his work Tumbling Woman at Rockefeller Center in New York, creating controversy since it reminded the viewers of people falling from the World Trade Center. When asked about the controversy in an interview, Fischl still felt "confused and hurt by it. It was an absolutely sincere attempt to put feelings into form and to share them, and it was met with such anger and anxiety in a way that used to be reserved for abstract sculpture, really." Fischl felt people were mourning the building more than the people since there were so few bodies but such a high body count, which he felt was wrong. In 2002, Fischl collaborated with the Museum Haus Esters in Krefeld, Germany. Haus Esters is a 1928 home, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1928 to be a private home. It now houses changing exhibitions. Fischl refurnished it as a home (though not particularly in Bauhaus style, and hired models who, for several days, pretended to be a couple who lived there. He took 2,000 photographs, which he reworked digitally and used as the basis for a series of paintings, one of which, the monumental Krefeld Project, Bedroom #6 (Surviving the Fall Meant Using You for Handholds) (2004) was purchased by Paul Allen featured in the 2006 Double Take Exhibit at Experience Music Project, where it was juxtaposed with a much smaller Degas pastel. This is by no means the first time Fischl has been compared to Degas. Twenty years earlier, reviewing a show of 28 Fischl paintings at New York's Whitney Museum, John Russell wrote in the New York Times, " Degas sets up a charged situation with his incomparable subtlety of insight and characterization, and then he goes away and leaves us to figure it out as best we can. That is the tactic of Fischl, too, though the society with which he deals has an unstructured brutality and a violence never far from release that are very different from the nicely calibrated cruelties that Degas recorded."
FISHER, Harrison
(1877-1934) American Golden Age Illustrator, "The Father of A Thousand Girls", Harrison Fisher showed an early interest in drawing and from the age of six was instructed by his father, Hugh Antoine Fisher, a landscape painter. When his family moved from Brooklyn to San Francisco, Harrison studied there at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. At sixteen, Fisher had begun to make drawings for the San Francisco Call and later for the Examiner.Soon after returning to New York, Fisher sold two sketches to Puck Magazine which also hired him as a staff artist. He became noted for his ability to draw beautiful women, and his Fisher Girls became rivals to those of Gibson and Christy. The American Girl was a favorite theme for the magazine then, and Fisher did cover illustrations for most of them. For many years he was under an exclusive contract to do covers for Cosmopolitan, but eventually he restricted himself to painting portraits including many actresses and theatrical personalities.
FISCHER, Johann Michael
FLACK, Audrey
(1931- ) American photorealist painter, printmaker, and sculptor. Flack studied fine arts in New York from 1948 to 1953. Her early work was abstract; one such painting paid tribute to Franz Kline. But gradually, Flack became a New Realist and finally a photorealist, in reaction to the abstract art movement. She later claimed she found the photorealist movement too restricting, and now gains much of her inspiration from baroque art. The ironic kitsch themes in her early work influenced Jeff Koons. A pioneer of Photorealism and a nationally recognized painter and sculptor, Ms. Flack's work is in the collections of major museums around the world, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Museum of Modern Art, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, and Whitney Museum of American Art and the National Museum of Art in Canberra, Australia. She was the first photorealist painter to have work purchased by the Museum of Modern Art.
FLAMEN, Anselme
(1647-1717) Baroque French sculptor
FLANDRIN, Hippolyte
(1809-1864) Romanticism French painter and lithographer, brother of Auguste Flandrin. He was initially discouraged from fulfilling his early wish to become an artist by Auguste’s lack of success, but in 1821 the sculptor Denys Foyatier, an old family friend, persuaded both Hippolyte and Paul to train as artists. He introduced them to the sculptor Jean-François Legendre-Héral (1796–1851) and the painter André Magnin (1794–1823), with whom they worked copying engravings and plaster casts. After Magnin’s death, Legendre-Héral took the brothers to the animal and landscape painter Jean-Antoine Duclaux (1783–1868). Hippolyte and Paul had both learnt the techniques of lithography from Auguste at an early age, and between the ages of 14 and 19 Hippolyte produced a number of lithographs, which he sold to supplement the family income. Many reflected his passion for military subjects (e.g. Cossacks in a Bivouac, c. 1825; Paris, Bib. N.). In 1826 the two brothers entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, where Hippolyte studied under Pierre Révoil. Showing a precocious talent, he was soon advised to move to Paris, and having left the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon in 1829, he walked to the capital with his brother Paul; together they enrolled in the studio of Ingres. After several unsuccessful attempts, Hippolyte won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1832 with Theseus Recognized by his Father (1832; Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), despite having suffered from cholera during the competition. His success was all the more spectacular given the general hostility to Ingres; Hippolyte was the first of his pupils to be awarded this prestigious prize. Hippolyte arrived in Rome in 1833; Paul joined him there in 1834. After first working on such subjects as Virgil and Dante in Hell (1836; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.), Hippolyte developed a taste for religious works during this stay. From 1836 to 1837 he worked on St Clare Healing the Blind for the cathedral in Nantes, winning a first-class medal at the 1837 Salon, and in 1838 he painted Christ Blessing the Children (Lisieux, Mus. Vieux-Lisieux), which was exhibited at the 1839 Salon.
(1755-1826) Neoclassicism British Neoclassical sculptor and draughtsman who began his career as a designer of cameos and classical friezes for Josiah Wedgwood. Working in Rome (1787-94) he won a European reputation with his famous line drawings illustrating Homer, Dante and the tragedies of Aeschylus. F.'s largest sculptural commission was the memorial to Lord Mansfield, but he did many other portrait busts, bas-reliefs and monumental groups of great technical accomplishment. F. was a friend of *Blake.
(1566-1638) Baroque German painter (Frankfurt)
FLÉMAL, Bertholet
(1614-1675) Baroque Flemish painter (Liège)
FLINCK, Govert Teunisz.
(1615-1660) Baroque German/Dutch portrait and subject painter who settled in Amsterdam. Ik-was a pupil of Rembrandt and until the early 1640s a close imitator of his master; later he followed the more fashionable style of B. van der Heist. F. painted a portrait of Rembrandt in 1639.
FLINT, Sir William Russell
(1880-1969) British society watercolounst, known for his Spanish gypsy subjects.
(born 1968) Croatian artist, working in ambient and installation art.
FLORIGERIO, Sebastiano
(1500-1543) High Renaissance Italian painter (Friuli)
FLORIS, Cornelis
(1514-1575) Mannerism Flemish sculptor (Antwerp)
(1516-1570) Mannerism Flemish painter, he worked in Antwerp. He visited Italy (c. 1542—6) and was an influential exponent of Italian Mannerism in the Netherlands.
(1485-1546) Northern Renaissance German sculptor (Nuremberg)
FLURER, Franz Ignaz
(1688-1742) Baroque German painter
FOGELBERG, Bengt Erland
(1786-1854) Romanticism Swedish sculptor
FOGGINI, Giambattista
(1652-1725) Baroque Italian sculptor (Florence)
FOHR, Carl Philipp
(1775-1818) Romanticism German painter and draughtsman. His first drawing lessons, from the age of 13, were from Friedrich Rottmann (1768–1816), the father of the painter Carl Rottmann. In 1810 the Darmstadt Court Councillor, Georg Wilhelm Issel, discovered Fohr sketching at Stift Neuberg near Heidelberg and, the following year, invited him to Darmstadt and provided encouragement and financial support. From 1813 Fohr carried out commissions for Grand Duchess Wilhelmina of Hesse, for whom he produced a Sketchbook of the Neckar Region, a collection of views and historical subjects (30 watercolours; 1813–14) and also a Baden Sketchbook (30 watercolours, 1814–15; both Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.). These far surpassed the usual level attained in this genre in their sharpness of detail, delicacy of colour and pictorial inventiveness. The Crown Princess granted him an annual pension of 500 guilders. From July 1815 to May 1816, Fohr was a student of landscape painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, and it was here that his breakthrough into an independent and ingenious drawing style came about.
FONDULI, Giovanni Paolo
(active 1468-1484) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Padua)
FONTAINE, Pierre-Francois-Leonard
(1762-1853) Neoclassical French architect, interior decorator and designer, who worked in such close partnership with Charles Percier, originally his friend from student days, from 1794 onwards, that it is fruitless to disentangle artistic responsibilities in their work. Together, Percier and Fontaine were inventors and major proponents of the rich and grand, consciously archaeological versions of neoclassicism we recognize as Directoire style and Empire style.
(1634-1714) Fontana - Italian family of architects and engineers. They were distantly related to Domenico Fontana, and were mainly active in Rome. The family’s fame was largely based on the work of Carlo Fontana, who continued the traditions laid down by the great masters of the High Baroque (Bernini, Borromini, Pietro da Cortona) and passed them on to his students, who included Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Domenico Martinelli, Nicodemus Tessin, James Gibbs and Filippo Juvarra. The essential conservatism of this tradition was particularly obvious in the work of Mauro Fontana, which, although it does not offer genuine highlights or new directions for future development, nonetheless concludes the architectural mission of the family in a coherent and dignified fashion.
FONTANA, Domenico
(1543-1607) Mannerism Italian architect (Rome)
FONTANA, Flaminio
(active after 1574) Mannerism Italian potter (Urbino)
FONTANA, Guido (see DURANTINO, Guido)
(active 1519-1576) High Renaissance Italian potter (Urbino)
FONTANA, Lavinia
(1552-1614) Mannerism Italian painter
(1899-1968) Argentine-born Italian artist. Associated (1930s) with * Abstraction-Creation he launched spazialismo with his 'White manifesto' (1946). It combined *Dada with *Concrete art principles and deeply influenced younger Italian artists. F. worked in sculpture — e.g. neon light structure (1952) — pottery and painting, slashing canvases and crevassing clay and metal in later works.
FONTANA, Prospero
(1512-1597) Mannerism Italian painter (Bologna)
(1707-1769) Rococo Italian painter (Venice)
FOPPA, Cristoforo (see CARADOSSO)
(1452-1527) Early Renaissance Italian goldsmith
FOPPA, Vincenzo
(1427/30-1515/16) Early Renaissance Italian painter, the leading artist of the Milanese school before Leonardo da Vinci visited Milan. He was probably trained by the Paduans and was influenced both by Mantegna and the Bellini. Among his works are 'The Adoration of the Kings, St Francis Receiving the Stigmata and a Madonna and Child.
(1605-1679) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(1480-1540) High Renaissance Spanish sculptor
FORNENBURGH, Jan Baptist van
(1585-1649) Baroque Dutch painter (The Hague)
(1615-1670) Baroque Italian painter (Naples)
FORTUNY, y Carbo Mariano
(1838-1874) Spanish painter of history and genre. Fortuny first attracted notice with his paintings of the Moroccan campaigns of General Prim, e.g. Battle of Wad-ras. Later he worked in Rome on large canvases, rich in incident and detail, which sold for record prices, e.g. The Spanish Marriage.
FOSCHI, Pier Francesco
(1502-1567) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
FOUJITA, Tsugouharu
(1886-1968) French painter of Japanese birth. After graduating from the Tokyo School of Fine Arts in 1910, he went to France in 1913. Though associated with the Ecole de Paris he developed an individual style. He became an annual member of the Salon d’Automne in 1919 and a permanent member in the following year. Subsequently his reputation in Parisian artistic circles rose, established by such works as My Studio (1921; Paris, Mus. N.A. Mod.) and Five Nudes (1923; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.), where he used a thin, delicate line on a background of milk-white material, like the surface of porcelain; this style was particularly impressive in his cool, complaisant nudes. In 1929 he briefly returned to Japan, holding a successful one-man show in Tokyo. He left Paris in 1931 and travelled through South, Central and North America before returning to Japan in 1933. He was made a member of the Nikakai (Second Division Society) in the following year and painted several murals in Japan, including Annual Events of Akita, Festivals of Miyoshi Shrine of Mt Taihei, commissioned by Hirano Masakichi of Akita (Akita, Hirano Masakichi A. Mus.). He visited Paris in 1939 to 1940, painting Still-life with Cat (Tokyo, Bridgestone A. Mus.) and Cats (Fighting) (Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.). In 1941 he left the Nikakai and was appointed to the Imperial Art Academy. He was also attached to the Navy and Army Ministries and used his excellent descriptive and compositional skills to depict war zones in China and South-East Asia. He was awarded the Asahi Culture Prize for the Last Day of Singapore (1942; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.) and other works. He went to the USA in 1949 and to Paris in the following year, taking French nationality in 1955 and becoming a Catholic convert, with the baptismal name of Leonard, in 1959. In 1966 he had the chapel of Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix built in Reims, and he devoted his last years to its design and its stained glass and murals.
(1420-1480) Northern Renaissance French painter. F. was born m Tours and probably trained in Paris. He travelled in Italy and brought many of the achievements of Italian painting back to France on his return to Tours in 1448. F. was painter to the French kings and probably the major French artist of the 15th c. Only the miniatures in a copy of the Antiquites juda'iques are documented, but other attributed works include: the Melun Diptych, the portraits Charles VII and Jouvenel des Ursins and the monumental Pieta.
(1590-1659) Baroque Flemish painter (Paris)

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