FRA, Angelico or Angelico Fra
(1395/1400-1455) Italian painter, florentine school, illuminator and Dominican friar. He rose from obscure beginnings as a journeyman illuminator to the renown of an artist whose last major commissions were monumental fresco cycles in St Peter’s and the Vatican Palace, Rome. He reached maturity in the early 1430s, a watershed in the history of Florentine art. None of the masters who had broken new ground with naturalistic painting in the 1420s was still in Florence by the end of that decade. The way was open for a new generation of painters, and Fra Angelico was the dominant figure among several who became prominent at that time, including Paolo Uccello, Fra Filippo Lippi and Andrea del Castagno. By the early 1430s Fra Angelico was operating the largest and most prestigious workshop in Florence. His paintings offered alternatives to the traditional polyptych altarpiece type and projected the new naturalism of panel painting on to a monumental scale. In fresco projects of the 1440s and 1450s, both for S Marco in Florence and for S Peter’s and the Vatican Palace in Rome, Fra Angelico softened the typically astringent and declamatory style of Tuscan mural decoration with the colouristic and luminescent nuances that characterize his panel paintings. His legacy passed directly to the second half of the 15th century through the work of his close follower Benozzo Gozzoli and indirectly through the production of Domenico Veneziano and Piero della Francesca. Fra Angelico was undoubtedly the leading master in Rome at mid-century, and had the survival rate of 15th-century Roman painting been greater, his significance for such later artists as Melozzo da Forli and Antoniazzo Romano might be clearer than it is.
FRA Filippo Lippi. *LIPPI, Filippo
(1406-1469) He was one of the leading painters in Renaissance Florence in the generation following Masaccio. Influenced by him in his youth, Filippo developed a linear, expressive style, which anticipated the achievements of his pupil Botticelli. Lippi was among the earliest painters indebted to Donatello. His mature works are some of the first Italian paintings to be inspired by the realistic technique (and occasionally by the compositions) of Netherlandish pioneers such as Rogier van der Weyden and Jan van Eyck. Beginning work in the late 1430s, Lippi won several important commissions for large-scale altarpieces, and in his later years he produced two fresco cycles that (as Vasari noted) had a decisive impact on 16th-century cycles. He produced some of the earliest autonomous portrait paintings of the Renaissance, and his smaller-scale Virgin and Child compositions are among the most personal and expressive of that era. Throughout most of his career he was patronized by the powerful Medici family and allied clans. The operation of his workshop remains a matter of conjecture.
FRA GIOCONDOoriginal name Giovanni da Verona , also called Giocondo da Verona
(1433-1515) Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance.
A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important collection of classical inscriptions and was noted by his contemporaries for his extraordinary knowledge of architectural engineering. In 1489 Alfonso, duke of Calabria, summoned Fra Giocondo to Naples, where he conducted archaeological studies, advised on fortification and road building, and may have helped design the gardens of Giuliano's palazzo, Poggio Reale.In 1495 Fra Giocondo went to France, where he may have helped design several chateaus and laid the foundations andsupervised construction of the bridge of Notre-Dame over the Seine in Paris (1500–04). He helped introduce Italian Renaissance styles into France through his designs.After returning to Italy, Fra Giocondo worked on fortifications and civic-engineering projects in Venice, Treviso, and Padua before being called to Rome in 1513 by Pope Leo X to aid Giuliano da Sangallo and Raphael on the building of St. Peter's. He was evidently needed for his expertise on statics, as the foundation piers of the structure were shifting and had begun to crack.Among his written works, an annotated and illustrated edition (1511) of the Roman architect Vitruvius' treatise De architectura proved highly influential.
(1780-1850) Neoclassicism French painter
(1732-1806) French Rococo painter who studied under *Ohardin, Boucher and Van Loo, then in Italy. There he was influenced by the painting of Tiepolo and Murillo. A large historical painting won him immediate fame, but be abandoned the grand manner to paint the familiar lovers in gardens, e.g. The Swing, and the incidents of clandestine love-affairs, e.g. The Stolen Kiss. Some of his finest works are the rapid drawings he made with pencil, sepia and *bistre wash, or red chalk, 2 examples of these are The Bed and Villa d'Este.
(1548-1615) Mannerism Italian sculptor
(1913-1976) Spanish Painter.
(active 1424-1468) Early Renaissance Spanish painter (active 1424-1468 in Leon)
FRANCESCA, Piero della
(1415-1492) Italian painter and theorist. His work is the embodiment of rational, calm, monumental painting in the Italian Early Renaissance, an age in which art and science were indissolubly linked through the writings of Leon Battista Alberti. Born two generations before Leonardo da Vinci, Piero was similarly interested in the scientific application of the recently discovered rules of perspective to narrative or devotional painting, especially in fresco, of which he was an imaginative master; and although he was less universally creative than Leonardo and worked in an earlier idiom, he was equally keen to experiment with painting technique. Piero was as adept at resolving problems in Euclid, whose modern rediscovery is largely due to him, as he was at creating serene, memorable figures, whose gestures are as telling and spare as those in the frescoes of Giotto or Masaccio. His tactile, gravely convincing figures are also indebted to the sculpture of Donatello, an equally attentive observer of Classical antiquity. In his best works, such as the frescoes in the Bacci Chapel in S Francesco, Arezzo, there is an ideal balance between his serene, classical compositions and the figures that inhabit them, the whole depicted in a distinctive and economical language. In his autograph works Piero was a perfectionist, creating precise, logical and light-filled images (although analysis of their perspective schemes shows that these were always subordinated to narrative effect). However, he often delegated important passages of works (e.g. the Arezzo frescoes) to an ordinary, even incompetent, assistant.
(1825-1893) Realism French sculptor
(1611-1690) Baroque Italian painter (Florence)
(1648-1729) Baroque Italian painter (Bologna)
(1393-after 1433) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
FRANCESCO DA COTIGNOLA (see ZAGANELLI, Francesco di Bosio)
(1470s-1532) Early Renaissance Italian painter
FRANCESCO DA SANGALLO
(1445) Italian architect and sculptor
FRANCESCO DA SANT'AGATA
(active 1491-1528) High Renaissance Italian sculptor (Padua)
FRANCESCO DE' FRANCESCHI
(active 1443-1468) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
FRANCESCO DEL COSSA
(1435-1476/7) Italian painter. Together with Cosimo Tura and Ercole de’ Roberti, Cossa was one of the most important painters working in Ferrara and Bologna in the second half of the 15th century. With them he shared an expressive use of line and solidity of form, but he also had a gift for decorative and anecdotal scenes, most evident in the frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara.
FRANCESCO DI GABRIELE DA VITERBO
(active c. 1500) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Viterbo)
FRANCESCO DI GIORGIO MARTINI
(1439-1502) Early Renaissance Sienese painter, sculptor, architect and engineer. There are a few paintings by F. but after 1477 he devoted himself to other work. This included a great chain of fortifications for the duke of Urbino, the church of S. Maria delle Grazie al Calcinaio at Cortona, a series of bronze reliefs, most famous of which is the Deposition in S. Maria del Carmine, Venice, and four bronze Angels for Siena cathedral. He also wrote a technical treatise on architecture, Trattato d'architettura (publ. 1841).
FRANCESCO DI VANNUCCIO
(active 1356-89) Medieval Italian painter (Siena)
(1638-1709) Baroque Italian painter (Lucca)
(1606-1654) Baroque Flemish painter (Mechelen)
FRANCIA, Francesco Francesco Raibolmi
(1450-1517) High Renaissance Bolognese goldsmith and from 1486 painter in an eclectic style derived mainly from Perugino and L. Costa; until 1507 he worked in partnership with the latter. An altar-piece The Virgin with St Anne with a Pieta in the lunette is probably his best-known painting.
(1482-1525) High Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
FRANCKEN, Ambrosius I
(1544-1618) Mannerism Flemish painter (Antwerp)
FRANCKEN, Frans I
(1542-1616) Mannerism Flemish painter (Antwerp)
FRANCKEN, Frans II Francken Frans the Younger
(1581-1642) Baroque Flemish painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. Many of his works are small historical, allegorical and biblical cabinet paintings with the focus on figures. He also invented or popularized several new themes that became popular in Flemish painting, such as genre scenes populated by monkeys (later imitated by David Teniers the Younger) and Kunstkamer paintings displaying a wealth of natural and artistic treasures against a neutral wall. Francken frequently collaborated with other artists, adding figures to works by Tobias Verhaecht and Abraham Govaerts. Later in his life he also painted large altarpieces.
FRANCKEN, Frans III
(1607-1667) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
FRANCKEN, Hieronymus, II
(1578-1623) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
FRANCKEN, Hieronymus, III
(1611-after 1661) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
(1578/79-1650) Baroque French painter (Le Puy)
(active 1563-1585) Mannerism Italian painter (Marches)
FRANK, Jane Jane Schenthal Frank
(1918-1986). American artist, painter, sculptor, mixed media artist, and textile artist.
(born 1928) American Abstract Expressionist painter.
(1774-1860) Romanticism French painter
(1928- ) American fantasy and science fiction artist. He is one of the most emulated artists of these genres in the world. Frazetta was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. At the age of eight, with the insistence of his school teachers, Frazetta's parents enrolled him in the Brooklyn Academy of Fine Arts. He attended the academy for eight years under the tutelage of Michael Falanga, an award-winning Italian fine artist. Falanga was struck by Frazetta's significant talent. Frazetta's abilities flourished under Falanga, who dreamed of sending Frazetta to Europe, at his own expense, to further his studies. Unfortunately, Falanga died suddenly in 1944 and with him, his dream. As the school closed about a year after Falanga's passing, Frazetta was forced to find work to earn a living. At 16, Frazetta started drawing for comic books that varied in themes: westerns, fantasy, mysteries, histories and other contemporary themes. Some of his earliest work was in funny animal comics, which he signed as "Fritz". During this period he turned down job offers from giants such as Walt Disney. In the early 1950s, he worked for EC Comics, National Comics (including the superhero feature "Shining Knight"), Avon and several other comic book companies. Much of his work in comic books was done in collaboration with friends Al Williamson and Roy Krenkel. Through the work on the Buck Rogers covers for Famous Funnies, Frazetta started working with Al Capp on his Li'l Abner comic strip. Frazetta was also producing his own strip, Johnny Comet at this time, as well as assisting Dan Barry on the Flash Gordon daily strip. In 1961, after nine years with Capp, Frazetta returned to regular comics. Having emulated Capp's style for so long, Frazetta's own work during this period looked a bit awkward as his own style struggled to reemerge. Work in comics for Frazetta was hard to find, however. Comics had changed during his period with Capp and his style was deemed antiquated. Eventually he joined Harvey Kurtzman doing the parody strip Little Annie Fanny in Playboy magazine.
(1909-1995) Danish painter and sculptor. He studied briefly at technical college and at the school of graphic arts of the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, but he was largely self-taught. Freddie painted his earliest abstracts in 1926, but in 1929 he became acquainted with André Breton’s periodical La Révolution surréaliste. The following year he introduced Surrealism to Scandinavia with the painting Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (priv. col.), which he showed at Kunstnernes Efterarsudstilling (‘Artists’ Autumn Exhibition’). In 1934 he met the painters Harry Carlsson and Vilhelm Bjerke-Petersen. Through Bjerke-Petersen, Freddie became involved with the international Cubist-Surrealist exhibition at Den Frie (the Free Exhibition) in Copenhagen in January 1935. Freddie exhibited there along with Magritte, Man Ray, Arp, Miró, Dalí, Yves Tanguy and others. He also participated in later large international Surrealist exhibitions.
(1856-1940) Belgian painter and draughtsman. He studied briefly under Charle-Albert before attending the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, where he became a pupil of Jules Vankeirsbilck (1833–96) and Ernest Slingeneyer (1820–94), also working in the studio of Jean-François Portaels. In 1878 he went to Italy with the sculptor Julien Dillens; he stayed there for over a year, making numerous studies after the artists of the Quattrocento. In 1878 he made his début at the Triennial Salon in Brussels and became a member of the group of Realist painters known as L’ESSOR. The very early work still shows the influence of E. Wauters (1846–1933), with whom he collaborated on the Panorama of Cairo (untraced).
FREDI, Bartolo di. *Bartolo di Fredi
(1330-1410) Sienese painter, pupil of A. Lorenzetti. His best 2 fresco cycles are at S. Gnnignano, one dealing with Old Testament subjects in the Collegiata (1356) and one in the church of S. Agostino on the birth and death of the Virgin (1366).
(1910-1966) American artist.
(1824-1910) Realism French sculptor (Paris)
(1567-1619) French painter of the 2nd school of *Fontainebleau who spent about 15 years in Italy and was strongly affected by the Mannerism of the Chevalier d'Arpino. In 1603 Henry IV recalled him to France, where his works included decorations for the Trinite chapel, Fontainebleau (begun 1608).
(1672-1744) Baroque French sculptor
(1905-1988) was a painter who specialized in the ancient medium of egg tempera. He was one of the masters of Magic Realism, part of a circle of friends and colleagues who all painted surreal imagery in egg tempera. Others include George Tooker and Paul Cadmus.Jared French received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Amherst College in 1925. He met and befriended Paul Cadmus in New York City, became his lover and persuaded Cadmus to give up commercial art for "serious painting". In 1937 French married Margaret Hoening, another artist. For the next eight years the Cadmuses and Frenches summered on Fire Island and formed a photographic collective called PAJAMA ("Paul, Jared, and Margaret"). French painted numerous murals for the WPA.Jared French's early paintings are eerie, colorful tableaux of still, silent figures derived from Archaic Greek statues. His later work shows "a kind of classical biomorphism," strange, colorful, suggestive organic forms.
(1922- ) Berlin-born British painter, grandson of Sigmund Freud. His earlier work until the late 1950s was painted with a hard, linear realism, consisting mostly of portraits, but also paintings showing a mysterious relationship between plants and human beings, which are Surrealist in character. His work since about 1952 is primarily portraits and nudes painted with extraordinary expressive subtlety. He is considered one of the few modern innovators in the representational tradition.
FREUND, Hermann Ernst
(1786-1840) Romanticism Danish sculptor
FREYTAG-LORINGHOVEN (Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven)
(1874-1927) German, DADA
FRIEDRICH, Caspar David
(1774-1840) German Romantic landscape painter and engraver who studied in Copenhagen (1794—8) and settled in Dresden. His characteristic subjects, depicted in a sharply delineated style, were Gothic rums, stark contorted trees, bleak seascapes and mountain crags often seen under mysterious lighting effects and peopled with lonely figures, insignificant before nature. Well-known examples are Abbey Graveyard under Snow, Capuchin Friar by the Sea and Wreck of the 'Hope'.
(1801-1833) Romanticism German painter
(1579-1620) Baroque German goldsmith (Augsburg)
FRITH, William Powell
(1819-1909) British painter of anecdotal subjects, so popular when 1st exhibited at the R.A. that they required special railings for protection; best known is Derby Day (1858). Although possessed of formidable technical skill he sacrificed the overall effect of his pictures to various independent incidents and human 'types'.
(1435-1486) Northern Renaissance Provencal painter who worked in Italy and at the court of Rene of Anjou. There are 2 documented works, both triptychs but stylistically far apart — the awkwardly realistic Raising of Lazarus (1461) and the symbolical and more accomplished Burning Bush (1475/6).
(1820-1876) French 'oriental' painter who followed P. Marilhat and Delacroix. He is, however, remembered for his discerning criticism of Dutch and Flemish painting, Les Matties d'antrcfois (1876; The Masters of Past Time, 1913). He also wrote a nostalgic autobiographical novel, Dominique (1862; 1932), and 2 books describing N. Africa.
FROST, William Edward
(1810-1877) Romanticism English painter (London)
FROUD, Brian "Good faeries & bad faeries"
FRUEAUF, Rueland the Elder
(1440/45-1507) Northern Renaissance Austrian painter
FRUEAUF, Rueland the Younger
(1470-1545) Northern Renaissance Austrian painter
FRYTOM, Frederik van
(1630-1702) Baroque Dutch potter (Delft)
(1699-1781) Baroque Italian architect
FÜGER, Friedrich Heinrich
(1751-1818) Neoclassicism German miniaturist (Vienna)
FÜHRICH, Joseph von
(1800-1876) Romanticism Bohemian painter
FUMIANI, Giovanni Antonio
(1645-1710) Baroque Italian painter (Venice)
(1930- ) Austrian visionary painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, architect, stage designer, composer, poet, singer and one of the founders of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism.
He studied sculpture with Emmy Steinbock (1943), attended the St. Anna Painting School where he studied under Professor Frohlich (1944), and entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna (1945) where he began his studies under Professor Robin C. Anderson, later moving to the class of Albert Paris von Gutersloh.
At the Academy he met Arik Brauer, Rudolf Hausner, Wolfgang Hutter, and Anton Lehmden, together with whom he later founded what has become known as the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism. He was also a founding member of the Art-Club (1946), as well as the Hundsgruppe, set up in opposition to it in 1951, together with Friedensreich Hundertwasser and Arnulf Rainer.
(1800-1876) Bohemian painter, printmaker and teacher. Until he was 18 he was trained by his father, Wenzel Führich, a painter and mason. In 1819, at the academy exhibition in Prague, he made his début with two history paintings. Their success enabled him to study in Prague. Dürer was the first powerful influence on his style; on a visit to Vienna in 1822, medieval and Renaissance art made a similar impression. His illustrations for Ludwig Tieck’s Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva (1824–5) attracted the interest of Prince Metternich, who helped him obtain a scholarship to study in Italy. On his arrival in Rome in 1827, Führich made contact with Friedrich Overbeck and other German artists there. He met Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) and was commissioned to complete the Tasso room (1827–9) in the Casino Massimo. In Rome he was impressed by Italian Renaissance works, particularly Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican. On the return journey to Vienna, he admired Fra Angelico’s paintings and the frescoes in the Camposanto in Pisa. After a period in Prague, Führich obtained a teaching post in Vienna in 1834, becoming professor of historical composition at the Kunstschule in 1840. Such works as Jacob and Rachel at the Well (1836; Vienna, Belvedere) and the Legend of St Isidore (1839; Mannheim, Städt. Ksthalle) made him the leading representative of Nazarene-style painting in Austria. In 1844–6 he produced a monumental cycle of the Stations of the Cross for the church of Johann-Nepomuk and in 1850 completed the cartoons for the frescoes in the Altlerchen Church, Vienna. His late work consists largely of prints and drawings with a religious content, which brought him great popularity.
FULLER, Meta Vaux Warrick
(1877-1968) The Harlem Renaissance.
(1890-1972) Italian painter and teacher. He attended the Scuola Municipale d’Arte Dosso Dossi, Ferrara (1902–5), and studied under Cesare Tallone at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan (1906–10). Influenced by meeting Umberto Boccioni and Carlo Carrà, he formed the Gruppo Nuove Tendenze with Anselmo Bucci (1887–1955) and Leonardo Dudreville (1885–1975) and the architects Antonio Sant’Elia and Mario Chiattone. Funi adopted Boccioni’s and Carrà’s dynamic style (e.g. Man Getting Off a Tram, 1914; Milan, Gal. A. Mod.) and in 1915 volunteered to serve in World War I with other Futurists. This interruption allowed him to reassess Futurism. Influenced by the circle of Fascist intellectuals around Margherita Sarfatti, he developed an allusive realism (e.g. Self-portrait, 1918), which, in the manifesto Contro tutti ritorni in pittura (1920), he and Mario Sironi distinguished from the prevalent archaism. In 1922, with Sironi, Bucci, Dudreville and others, he formed the Sette Pittore del Novecento, exhibiting at the Galleria Pesaro, Milan, in 1922. The following year the Sette Pittore developed into the NOVECENTO ITALIANO, and further shows were held at the Galleria Pesaro, and in 1924 at the Venice Biennale. Funi treated contemporary subjects with an idealizing Renaissance realism, as in Maternity (1921).
(1470-1539) High Renaissance Swiss glass painter (Zurich)
(1600-1646) Baroque Italian painter (Florence)
FUSELI, John Henry
(1741-1825) Romanticism Swiss painter (England)
FÜSSLI, Johann Heinrich (see FUSELI, John Henry)
(1741-1825) Romanticism Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer, active in England, son of Johann Caspar Füssli. He spent most of his working life in England, where he established himself as the most original history painter and draughtsman of his generation. Renowned for his treatment of bizarre and psychologically penetrating subjects, he was also a prolific writer and, from 1779, Professor of Painting at the Royal Academy.
(1611-1661) Baroque Flemish painter of still-life, especially trophies of the hunt, and a few outstanding flower paintings. Trained by L. Snyders, he probably painted some of the animals in paintings byjordaens and Rubens. Typical of his rich colour and technical brilliance is Still-life with Pageboy and Parrot.