(1628-1685) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
HACKERT, Georg Abraham
(1755-1805) Neoclassicism German painter
HACKERT, Jacob Philipp
(1737-1807) Rococo German painter. He studied first with his father, Philipp Hackert, then from 1755 with Blaise Nicolas Le Sueur at the Berlin Akademie. There he encountered, and copied, the landscapes of Dutch artists and of Claude Lorrain. The latter influence shows in two works exhibited in 1761, views of the Lake of Venus in the Berlin Zoological Garden (versions of 1764 in Stockholm, Nmus.). These much admired paintings retain a rather rigid late Baroque style. Hackert’s main interest in these early works was to arrive at a special understanding of a place through alternate views, with reverse directions of observation. This systematic documentation bears witness to his interest in the study of nature.
HAECHT, Tobias van (see VERHAECHT, Tobias)
(1561-1631) Baroque Flemish painter
HAECHT, Willem van
(1593-1637) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
HAGEMANN, Karl Friedrich
(1773-1806) Neoclassicism German sculptor
(1630-1688) Baroque German painter
HALL, Peter Adolf
(1739-1793) Rococo Swedish miniaturist
(1711-1781) Rococo French painter (Paris)
(1591-1656) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
(1580-1666) Baroque Dutch portrait painter. H. lived all his life in Haarlem. He probably studied under K. van Mander and may have visited Rubens in Antwerp (1616). He must have won a considerable reputation as a portrait painter prior to 1616, when he was commissioned to paint The Banquet of the Haarlem Civic Guard, Archers of St George. In this work H. confidently solves the enormous problems of composition involved in a group portrait where no figure can be subordinate. Other militia portraits were commissioned for the same mess in 1627, 1633 and 1639, while H.'s fame had spread to Amsterdam, whose Civic Guard he was invited to paint in 1633, a picture he left unfinished. Married, with numerous children, one an imbecile, another a delinquent, H. was in continuous financial difficulty. He gave lessons and among his pupils were probably Brouwer, Leyster, Molenaer and Wouwerman. In 1641 H. painted 'The Governors of St Elizabeth Hospital. In 1644 the entrance fee of the Haarlem Guild was waived to allow H. to become a member. In 1664, in return for a small grant of money and fuel from the city, H. painted 2 of his most masterful and technically bold group portraits, Men ... and Women Governors of the Haarlem Almshouse. Of his single portraits, perhaps the best known is the one called The Laughing Cavalier. Among others which show the brilliance of his brush-work and which capture the spontaneity of gesture he was famous for, are Gipsy Girl, Elderly Woman, Hille Bobbe, or The Witch of Haarlem and Young Couple in a Landscape. H. was an important influence on Manet.
HALS, Frans II
(1618-1669) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
(1611-1669) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
(1628-1686) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
HAMEN, Juan van der
(1596-1631) Baroque Spanish painter (Madrid)
HAMILTON, Elaine Elaine Hamilton-O'Neal
(born 1920) American artist. Action painting.
(1748-1825) Neoclassicism Scottish painter
HAMILTON, Philipp Ferdinand de
(1664-1750) Baroque Scottish painter (Vienna)
(1922- ) British artist. He studied at the R.A. Schools (1938) but his art training was interrupted by the war when he was trained as engineering draughtsman. He taught for 14 years, first at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, and then at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. H. was largely responsible for the radical developments which transformed British art in the 1950s and 1960s: his seminal role in the birth of *Pop art is acknowledged internationally. Although best known as a painter and maker of prints, his influence has been exercised also through teaching, writing, and through a number of exhibitions, e.g. 'Growth and Form' (1951), 'Man, Machine and Motion' (1955) and "This is Tomorrow' (1956). His publications include Collected Words (1953-82).
(1819-1888) Realism Belgian painter (Paris)
(1925-1996) American Super-Realist sculptor of life-size and life-like figures of ordinary Americans, made with plastic materials (reinforced polyester resin and fibreglass) which result in extraordinary and disconcerting verisimilitude. The subjects and types chosen may express a critical attitude towards the social types they represent (e.g. Tourists, 1970) or the society that produces them.
HANS VON AACHEN AACHEN HANS VON
(1552-1615) German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II, he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.
(active 1490s) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish goldsmith (s-Hertogenbosch)
(1958-1990) American artist whose graffiti-like drawings of children, dogs, UFOs and AIDS-inspired images made him one of the art celebrities of the 1980s. He also painted and sculpted, and designed stage-sets, murals, record covers and logos. As the critic Germano Celant has observed, H. 'had the singular ability' to depict the complexity of the present with both its sublime and horrifying aspects as well as its marvelous and monstrous forms.'
HARLINGEN, Pieter van (see FEDDES, Pieter)
(1585-1634) Baroque Dutch painter
(1724-1770) The great 18th-century master of the Japanese colour print. His main themes were girlhood and scenes from everyday life, and he endowed these commonplace subjects with a grace and beauty far excelling anything in the Japanese tradition before or after his time.
(1747-1818) Japan Artist
(1859-1935) American painter and graphic artist. After studying in Boston he went to Paris, where he was strongly influenced by the technique and high colour range of the Impressionists. He was one of the 1st U.S. artists to adopt Impressionism and also to paint the N.Y. scene.
(1849-1910) Born in Germany of English parents, he took French nationality in 1895. Studied in Paris, at the Acadeémie Julian. From 1881-91 he exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Francais; from 1894 with the Societe Nationale, the Rose+Croix Salons and the Libre Esthetique in Brussels. In touch with the Symbolist writers, with Stéphane Mallarmé, Jean Lorraine, Robert de Montparnasse etc. Akin to the Pre-Raphaelites in his dense, highly detailed style combined with strange or exotic subject matter.
(1926- ) Modular constructivism.
(1886-1971) Austrian-born Dadaist, one of the co-founders - with *Grosz, *Heartfield, Huelscnbeck and others — of the 'Club Dada' in Berlin in 1918, one of the signatories of the Berlin Dada Manifesto (1918) and editor of the magazine Der Dada. H. developed first, along with other Berlin Dadaists, the method of *photomontage. H. wrote: 'seized with an innovatory zeal, I also needed a name for this technique, and in agreement with Grosz, Heartfield, Baader, and Hoch, we decided to call these works photomontages. This term translates our aversion at playing the artist, and, thinking of ourselves as engineers ... we meant to construct, to assemble our works.' H. also edited the Dada Almanach (1920) and was one of the key participants at the Berlin Dada Fair in June 1920.
(1914-1995) Austrian painter, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. Hausner has been described as a "psychic realist" and "the first psychoanalytical painter" (Gunter Engelhardt). Hausner studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna from 1931 until 1936. During this period he also traveled around Europe, visiting England, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and Egypt. After he was designated a 'degenerate' artist in 1938, exhibition of his work was banned in Germany. He was a soldier from 1941 until 1945. In 1942 he married Grete Czingely. Before allying himself with and co-founding the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism his works were mainly Expressionist-influenced images of suburbs, still-lifes, and female models, most of which he destroyed.
In 1944, Hausner married Irene Schmied. During the last days of the second world war he was assigned to an air defense unit. After the war, he returned to his bomb-damaged studio and resumed work as an artist. In 1946 he founded a surrealist group together with Edgar Jené, Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter and Fritz Janschka. They were later joined by Arik Brauer and Anton Lehmden. He joined the Art-Club and had his first one-man exhibition in the Konzerthaus, Vienna. A key work of this period, It's me! (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), shows his awareness of Pittura Metafisica and Surrealism in a psychoanalytical painting where the elongated being in the foreground penetrates what was apparently a real landscape, until it tears like a backdrop; another painting, Forum of Inward-turned Optics (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), is evidence of his ability to depict the subject in a realist style while simultaneously overturning the laws of one-point perspective. He married Hermine Jedlicka in 1951; their daughter Xenia Hausner, also an artist, was born the same year. After working on the painting for six years, he completed his masterpiece, The Ark of Odysseus, in 1956. The Ark of Odysseus (1948-51 and 1953-6; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), depicts the hero as a self-portrait and was a precursor to the series of Adam paintings in which Hausner painted his own features. In 1957, Hausner painted his first "Adam" picture. He came into conflict with the Surrealist orthodoxy, who condemned as heretical his attempt to give equal importance to both conscious and unconscious processes. In 1959 he co-founded the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism together with his old surrealism group members: Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter, Anton Lehmden, Arik Brauer, and Fritz Janschka. In 1962, Hausner met Paul Delvaux, René Magritte, Victor Brauner, and Dorothea Tanning while traveling in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. The 1st Burda Prize for Painting was awarded to him in 1967. In 1969, he was awarded the Prize of the City of Vienna. Shortly after, he separated from Hermine Jedlicka and moved to Hietzing together with his daughter Xenia and Anne Wolgast, whom he had met in Hamburg. From 1966 until 1980, he was a guest professor at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Hamburg. He also taught at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Among his students were Joseph Bramer, Friedrich Hechelmann, Gottfried Helnwein, Michael Engelhardt, and Siegried Goldberger. Hausner was awarded the Austrian State Prize for Painting in 1970.
(1890-1973) African-American artist who, after studying at the Cooper Union School of Art in N.Y. and at the Boothbay Art Colony in Maine, received the coveted Harmon Foundation award which enabled him to go to France in 1927. In Paris he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and soon after successfully exhibited his works associated with the final years of the Harlem Renaissance. After returning to N.Y. m 1932, he worked on the U.S. Treasury Art Project and the *W.P.A. In 1944 he began a series, Ballad of John Henry (until 1954), on the life of the legendary African-American folk hero.
HAYDON, Benjamin Robert
(1786-1846) Neoclassicism English painter
(1791-1882) Romanticism Italian painter and printmaker. Italy’s greatest exponent of historical Romantic painting, he was also greatly admired for his portraits. He played an important part in the cultural life of Italy during its emergence as a modern nation state.
(1792-1871) Romanticism English painter (London)
HAYTER, Stanley William
(1901-1988) British graphic artist responsible for giving a new impetus to engraving techniques, widely extending their field of reference by his imaginative use of mixed techniques. In Paris he founded (1927) the influential experimental workshop *Atelier 17.
HEADE, Martin Johnson
(1819-1904) Realism American painter
HEARTFIELD, John Helmut Herzfelde
(1891-1968) German pioneer of *photomontage and a founder of Berlin *Dada in the 1910s. In Britain from 1938, he settled in E. Germany in 1950. A Communist, H. fought relentlessly against Nazism, capitalism and war, in renowned satirical montages.
(1883-1970) German *Expressionist painter and graphic artist, with Kirchner and Schmidt-Rottluff founder of Die *Brucke. The brooding introspection of his work up to 1920 gradually diminished and he turned away from Expressionism, developing a more decorative style and a lyrical sensitivity to landscape. He produced important woodcuts such as 'The Crouching One (1914) which conveys his tragic sense of man's isolation
HEDA, Willem Claesz
(1594-1680) Baroque Dutch still-life painter who worked in Haarlem in the manner of P. Claesz. H.'s son Gerrit Willemsz worked in the same style.
HEEM, Cornelis de
(1631-1695) Baroque Dutch painter (Leiden)
HEEM, Jan Davidsz de
(1606-1684) Baroque Dutch still-life painter, as was his father, David de H. (1570—1632). He worked mainly in Antwerp but also in Leyden and Utrecht. He specialized m elaborate flower pieces influenced by those of D. Seghers but used a lighter range of colours. He had many pupils and imitators including his son Cornelis (1613—95).
HEEMSKERCK, Egbert Jaspersz. van, the Elder
(1634-1704) Baroque Dutch painter (London)
HEEMSKERCK, Egbert van, the Younger
(1676-1744) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
HEEMSKERCK, Maerten van
(1498-1574) Northern Renaissance Dutch painter of portraits and religious subjects, pupil of J. van Scorel, from whom he learned an Italianate style which he further established in Rome (1532-5). There he made-sketches which give important information about the appearance of classical monuments in the 16th ñ.
HEEMSKERK, Willem Jacobsz van
(1613-1693) Baroque Dutch glass painter (Leiden)
(1673-1732) Baroque German sculptor
(1901-1975) Hlebine school.Croatian group of painters
(1787-1865) Neoclassicism French painter (Paris)
HEINTZ, Joseph the Elder
(1564-1609) Mannerism Swiss painter (Prague)
HEINTZ, Joseph the Younger
(1600-1678) Baroque Swiss painter and etcher, son of Joseph Heintz. He served his apprenticeship (1617–21) as a painter with his stepfather, Matthäus Gundelach, in Augsburg. His artistic beginnings are traceable in drawings produced in Augsburg (e.g. the Painter at his Easel, 1621; Gdansk, N. Mus.), and Venice (e.g. Genius of Painting, 1625; Vienna, Albertina). His great panel painting Christ in Limbo (late 1620s or early 1630s; sold London, Sotheby’s, 6 July 1994, lot 4391) bears witness to his conversion to Catholicism, without which he could hardly have established himself in Venice. He probably spent long periods in Rome in the 1630s or 1640s, and before 1644 Urban VIII made him a Knight of the Golden Spur. Many of his paintings on religious themes, including works supporting the Counter-Reformation, were predominantly for churches in Venice and its dominions. However, his special importance for Venetian painting lies not in the field of religious art but in his depictions (mostly Venice, Bib. Correr) of the city’s festivities and state ceremonies, featuring large numbers of figures, in which he was a direct precursor of Luca Carlevaris and Canaletto, as revealed especially in his Piazza S Marco (after 1640; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili). Presumably he knew of the similar endeavours of his cousin Joseph Plepp (1595–1642) in Berne. He also produced genre paintings, such as the Fishmonger (1650s; Italy) votive pictures, including the Adoration of the Magi (?1669) and Sacra conversazione (1669; both Breguzzo, S Andrea); allegories, for example the Allegory of Venice (1674; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.); pictures showing the activities of the months and mythological scenes of which there is so far only a literary record.
(1640-1704) Baroque German painter
(1944- ) American artist who, like Smithson, often works on a vast scale (Complex One/City, 1972-6). A leading *Earth work artist, H. creates 'negative objects' which are rarely documented. In Double Negative he excavated 40,000 tons of earth and rock in 2 sq. miles of desert.
(1904-1987) French painter. He collaborated with Van Doesburg on the pamphlet Art Concret and was a member of the Abstraction-Creation group. He spent several years in the U.S.A. After working under the influence of the Cubists and Mondrian he reverted to representational painting.
(1948- ) Austrian-Irish fine artist, painter, photographer, installation and performance artist.
HELST, Bartholomeus van der
(1613-1670) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
HEMESSEN, Caterina van
(1528-1587) Mannerism Flemish painter
HEMESSEN, Jan Sanders van
(1500-1556) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter
HEMMEL VON ANDLAU, Peter
(active 1447-1501) Northern Renaissance German glass painter
HENNEQUIN DE LIÈGE (see JEAN DE LIÈGE)
(active 1361-1381) Medieval French sculptor
(1865-1929) American Realist painter who studied at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and in Paris, and in the 1890s founded the group called 'Philadelphia Realists', later The *Eight; an organizer of the *Armory Show. He was an important and stimulating teacher, encouraging his pupils to seek inspiration in the contemporary scene. Some of his essays and classroom notes were publ. as The An Spirit (1923).
(active 1502-1518) High Renaissance Portuguese painter
American Pin -Up Art.
(1667-1726) Baroque Dutch painter (Hoorn)
HEPWORTH, Barbara Dame Barbara Hepworth
(1903-1975) British sculptor.
(1576-1636) Spanish artist
(1540-1586) Mannerism Spanish sculptor (Seville)
(1910-1987) Rumanian born Surrealist painter, printmaker and sculptor. Herold studied from 1925 to 1926 at the Art Academy in Bucharest. The artist came to Paris in 1930 where he met Victor Braun, Yes Tanguy and Andre Breton. He joined the Surrealist group around Breton and exhibited at the Salon d'Automne since 1936.
(1920-1999) English painter, writer and designer.
HERP, Willem van, the Elder
(1614-1677) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
HERRERA, Francisco de, the Elder
(1590-1656) Baroque Spanish painter
HERRERA, Francisco de, the Younger
(1622-1685) Baroque Spanish painter
(1743-1827) Rococo Flemish painter (Antwerp)
HESDIN, Jacquemart de
(?-1410) French miniaturist of Flemish origin. He worked for John, Duke of Berry, decorating several L3ooks of Hours, the most famous being the Belles Heures. Subtlety of colour and use of borders with birds and foliage characterize his work. His representation of architecture suggests Sienese influence.
HESS, Jesuit Willem van
HESS, Heinrich Maria von
(1798-1863) Romanticism German painter
HEUSCH, Jacob de
(1657-1701) Baroque Dutch painter
HEUSSEN, Claes van
(1599-after 1631) Baroque Dutch painter (Haarlem)
HEYDEN, Jan van der
(1637-1712) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
HEYDEN, Pieter van der
(1530-1575) Mannerism Flemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
(1780-1849) American folk artist or 'primitive', famous for his versions of The Peaceable Kingdom illustrating Isaiah II, with W. Penn signing his treaty with the Indians shown in the background.
(1610-1674) Baroque Spanish painter (Valencia)
(1692-1780) Baroque English painter
(1818-1869) Romanticism German painter
(1951- ) American video artist of international importance. His *Postmodern concerns with perception and language are informed by cybernetics, communications theory, video technology, *Performance and *Conceptual art, and poetry in the U.S.A. since the early 1960s. In his works complex video installations are combined with language, in spoken and written texts, which often allude to French thinkers, like M. Blanchot and J. Derrida, in an interplay between word and image, e.g. Inasmuch as It Is Always Already Taking Place (1990), I Believe It is an Image in Light of the Other (1991 -2), Tall Ships (1992), Between 1 & 0 and Learning Curve (both 1993).
(1547-1619) Mannerism English miniaturist
(1797-1858) Japanese artist of the Ukiyo-e school, one of the great masters of the coloured woodcut. He adapted block printing to landscape subjects being best known for his poetical prints of the Yedo (Tokyo) district and the old high road to Kyoto. His work exerted a powerful influence on the Impressionists and other 10th-c. Huropean artists.
(1872-1946) American painter of Russian–Polish origin. He claimed to have carved wooden ceremonial objects as a young boy, but ceased to create until he retired from his clothing manufacturing concern and began to paint. When Sidney Janis was arranging an exhibition of American folk art for MOMA in 1939, he saw Hirshfield’s naive works in a gallery in New York. He exhibited two in the show and organized a one-man show for the artist in 1943; he also purchased two works, including Beach Girl (1937). In such paintings Hirshfield based large areas of the overall design on the fabrics with which he worked during his years in business, and his outlined forms on the art of patternmaking. In this and slightly later works, such as Inseparable Friends (1941), an ambiguous treatment of young female sexuality is played off against the patterns and the repetition of forms.
(1503-1553) Northern Renaissance German graphic artist
(1965- ) English artist and the most prominent of the group that has been dubbed "Young British Artists" (or YBAs). Hirst dominated the art scene in Britain during the 1990s and is internationally renowned. During the 1990s his career was closely linked with the collector Charles Saatchi, but increasing frictions came to a head in 2003 and the relationship ended. Death is a central theme in Hirst's works. He became famous for a series in which dead animals (including a shark, a sheep and a cow) are preserved—sometimes having been dissected—in formaldehyde. His most iconic work is The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a 14-foot tiger shark immersed in formaldehyde in a vitrine. Its sale in 2004 made him the world's second most expensive living artist after Jasper Johns. In June 2007, Hirst overtook Johns when his Lullaby Spring sold for £9.65 million at Sotheby's in London. On 30 August 2007, Hirst outdid his previous sale of Lullaby Spring with For The Love of God which sold for £50 million to an unknown investment group. He is also known for "spin paintings," made on a spinning circular surface, and "spot paintings," which are rows of randomly-coloured circles.