(1739-1814) Neoclassicism French cabinet-maker (Paris)
JACOBELLO Dalle Masegne
(?-1409) Italian sculptor
JACOBELLO DEL FIORE
(1370-1439) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
(1876-1944) French poet and artist, a friend of *Apollinaire and *Picasso in the early days of *Cubism.
(1496-1567) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter
(1598-1636) Baroque Dutch painter (Amsterdam)
JACOMART, Jaume Baço
(1411-1461) Early Renaissance Spanish painter (Valencia)
JACOPINO DA TRADATE
(active 1401-1440) Early Renaissance Italian sculptor (Milan)
JACOPO DA EMPOLI
(1551-1640) Mannerism Italian painter (Florence)
JACOPO DALLA BIAVA, Liberale (see LIBERALE da Verona)
(1445-1526/29) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Verona)
JACOPO de' Barbari (see BARBARI, Jacopo de')
(1445-1516) High Renaissance Italian painter (Venice)
JACOPO del CASENTINO
(1297-1349) Medieval Italian painter (Florence)
JACOPO del SELLAIO
(1442-1493) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
JACOPO DI ARCANGELO DI JACOPO (see JACOPO del SELLAIO)
(1442-1493) Early Renaissance Italian painter (Florence)
JACOPO Della Quercia
(1374-1438) Italian sculptor, Sienese school. He was the most significant non-Florentine sculptor of the 15th century: a transitional figure in the development of Italian Renaissance sculpture, who infused the Late Gothic art of Nicola Pisano with a new appreciation of antiquity, paving the way for such later artists as Antonio Federighi and Francesco di Giorgio in Siena, Niccolo dell’Arca in Bologna and, most notably, Michelangelo. He worked for a wide spectrum of patrons—the papal states, noble and mercantile families and the cities of Siena and Florence—and was the only Sienese artist of his century to achieve a truly national reputation.
(1803-1878) Romanticism French painter
JACQUE, Charles Émile
(1813-1894) Realism French painter (Barbizon)
JACQUEMART DE HESDIN
(?-1411) Medieval French illuminator
(1863-1938) She is well known by modern critics, but very little is known about her actual life. Just recently, after two years of research, her birth and death dates were uncovered. Between 1891 and 1896, Jacquemin was known for exhibiting at the gallery of Le Barc de Boutteville and the Salon de La Plume of 1900 as an impressionist and symbolist. Most of her paintings involve showing intense suffering, anguish, or human pain. She died in 1938.
(1939- ) French Pop Art artist. He is married to Sophie Matisse, great-granddaughter of Henri Matisse. Alain Jacquet lives in New York and Paris and teaches at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs. Camouflage Botticelli (Birt of Venus) (1963-64) is a famous work of his. In a series of camouflage paintings, he often uses motifs from older, very famous paintings, such as in this case from the painting The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli.
(1545-1611) Mannerism French sculptor (Paris)
(1794-1874) Romanticism French sculptor
JAERSVELT, Reijnier van
(active 1528-1576) Northern Renaissance Flemish goldsmith (Antwerp)
(1802-1866) Neoclassicism French sculptor (Paris)
(1507-1585) Northern Renaissance German goldsmith (Nuremberg)
Pin -Up Art
JANNECK, Franz Christoph
(1703-1761) Rococo Austrian painter
(1575-1632) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
(1624-1693) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
JANSSENS, Jan Willem
(1590-1650) Baroque Flemish painter (Ghent)
JANSSENS, Victor Honoré
(1658-1736) Baroque Flemish painter (Brussels)
JAWLENSKY Alexei von
(1864-1941) Russian painter, trained at a military school in Moscow; lie studied at St Petersburg Academy (1889) and then in Munich (1896) under Azbe as a fellow-student of *Kandinsky. While in France during 1905 he was deeply impressed by Matisse's free use of colour. In 1909 lie joined Kandinsky's New Artists' Association in Munich. His early work (1911-14) reveals a Kandinsky-inspired interest in the expression of feeling through brilliant colour and violent execution, but in his mature work, e.g. Head (1935), forms are controlled with a Cubist sense ot structure and the image has a deeper icon-like mysticism. He exhibited with Feininger, Kandmsky and Klee (Der *Blaue Vier in 1924), but mostly worked m isolation at Wiesbaden, where he died.
JEAN DE BEAUMETZ
(?-1396) Medieval Flemish painter
JEAN DE LIÈGE
(active 1361-1381) Medieval French sculptor
(1699-1789) Baroque French painter
(1596-1653) Baroque Flemish graphic artist (Antwerp)
(1970- ) American artist, most widely known for the street installations he creates using packing tape. He has shown indoors in galleries in the U.S., Europe and Brazil and is represented by Lazarides gallery in London. He maintains the website tapesculpture.org and teaches his tape casting process in workshops in the cities he visits. He was born in Fairfax, VA and currently lives in Washington DC.
Jennewein Carl Paul
(1890 - 1978) American sculptor. Art Deco
JENSEN, Christian Albrecht
(1792-1870) Realism Danish painter
JERICHAU, Jens Adolph
(1818-1883) Neoclassicism Danish sculptor
(1675-1739) Baroque Irish painter (London)
JOHN, Augustus Augustus Edwin John
(1878-1961) Welsh painter, draughtsman, and etcher.
(1930- ) Leading American painter, sculptor and print maker. In the 1950s associated with *Rauschenberg and U.S. *Pop art but always using the rich painterly techniques of *Abstract Hxprcssionism. J. at 1st used ordinary objects in his paintings or cast as sculptures, e.g. I-'lag (ly.s.s). Target with Plaster C.asts (1955). His paintings, usually made in encaustic and oil, arc collaged and built up in relief. The representation of subject matter such as flags, numbers, targets, maps of the U.S.A., colour and number charts is cool and objective, yet personal, ironic and ambiguous e.g. (>ray Numbers, 1958. In the late 1950s and '60s his works became increasingly freer and he eventually reduced recognizable representation in many works but without lapsing into abstraction, e.g. According to what (1964) and Harlem Light (1967). These works often incorporated found objects (rulers, brooms, brushes, etc.) as well as stencilled letters and body prints. From 1972 on J.'s work developed even further in this direction with paintings which do not make any use of recognizable subject matter and yet convey a quality of representation unlike most abstract art, e.g. Scent (1973—4) and Weeping Women (1975). Since about 1974, J.'s work has taken a new turn becoming interestingly enriched through complex allusions to the work of Grunewald, Munch, Cezanne, Picasso, Duchamp, etc., and to images from his own earlier paintings. J. has also worked extensively in silk-screens and lithographs.
(1593-1661) Baroque English painter
(1927-1995) American artist, best known since the early 1950s for his 'mailart' and *collages. |. is one of the most original artists of U.S. *Pop art, using letters, postcards, photographs and portraits of 'high' and 'low' culture personalities like Elvis Presley, Mondrian, Virginia Woolf and Shirley Temple. His work is both playful and surprising, fusing life and art, and raising questions about both.
JOHNSON Sargent Claude
(1887-1967) African-American sculptor and print maker, active on the West Coast of the U.S.A. His most productive period was in the 1930s when he used a wide variety of materials, including copper, for his masks derived from *Ife and *Benm sculptures. He executed a number of *W.P.A. projects. His large figures of Incas on llamas (8-ft (2.43 m.) high) were made for the Treasure Island, San Francisco.
JOHNSON William H.
(1901-1970) African-American artist considered today to be one of the most important of his generation. He travelled extensively and absorbed in his oils, watercolours, drawings, prints and ceramics elements from the diverse cultures of N.Y., North Africa and Europe. His style ranged from the self-consciously naive to academicism, *Impressionism, *Fauvism, German *Expressionism and *Cubism. Married to Holcha Krake, a Danish artist, he lived for several years in Denmark, before and after his wife's death. From 1945 he painted a series of social, historical and political narrative panels depicting African-American imagery. Soon after these were exhibited with great success in Copenhagen, he became mentally ill. He spent the last 23 years of his life in obscurity, in a mental hospital on Long Island.
(1700-1777) Baroque Italian painter
(1937- ) British artist prominent in early 1960s Pop art, his subjects generally coining from 1940s U.S. culture. His sometimes commercial technique includes use of acrylic paints. Banal sexy images of intense, even '3-D' reality, highlight J.'s preoccupation with the dichotomy between the realism of picture details and the unreality of picture space.
(active 1780-1791) Neoclassicism English graphic artist (London)
(1573-1652) was the foremost exponent of late-Renaissance classicism in England, where his work left an indelible mark; it also influenced 18th-century architecture in the US. His most successful projects included country houses (the Queen's House at Greenwich and Wilton House), the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall, and the enlargement of St Paul's Cathedral. He was famous in his day for his designs for the royal court's masques. An interesting collection of his drawings has survived, including designs for the Palace of Whitehall.
JONES Lois Mailou
(1905- ) African-American painter, ill., textile designer and teacher. Born in Boston, she received her initial education in art at the Boston School of the Museum of Fine Arts which, however, turned down her application for a graduate assistantship in 1927 on racial grounds. In 1937 she went to study in Paris and has returned frequently since. After 1st working in North Carolina, she joined the faculty of Fine Arts, Howard University, Washington, where she became associated with the Harmon Foundation. She remained there until her retirement. As an artist J. was one of the 1st African-American women painters to depict African imagery, e.g. Les Fetiches (1938). Her output ranges prolifically from her African-inspired works of the early 1930s to landscapes, cityscapes and figures (1937—51). Since i960 she has depicted Haitian scenes and returned to African themes. In 1973 the 1st major retrospective of J.'s work was held.
(1742-1803) Rococo English painter
JONGH, Ludolf de
(1616-1679) Baroque Dutch painter (Rotterdam)
JOOS de Momper
(1564 -1635) Flemish Anthropomorphic Landscape ARTIST
JOOS van Cleve (Joose van der Βεκε)
(1480-1540) Flemish painter identified with the Master of the Death of the Virgin. He worked in Antwerp and for Francis I in France, painting portraits and religious subjects. The dispassionate realism of his portraits owes something to the influence of Quentin Massys, but wide stylistic differences are apparent in his work as a whole.
JOOS van Gent
(Joose van Wassenhove) called 'Justus of Ghent' [ft. 1460—So). Flemish painter influenced by Bouts and Van der Weyden, and active in Antwerp and Ghent before going to work at the court at Urbino. His works include Adoration of the Magi, Crucifixion and Last Supper.
JOOS van Wassenhove
(active 1460-80) Northern Renaissance Flemish painter (Urbino)
JORDAENS, Hans III
(1595-1643) Baroque Flemish painter (Antwerp)
(1593-1678) Baroque Flemish painter working in Antwerp. He collaborated with Rubens on at least 2 pictures and was greatly influenced by him. His paint is thicker, however, and his robust sense of joie de vivre often becomes outright vulgarity, e.g. She Wife of Candaules. His portrait style at its best is seen in Man and his Wife.
(1534-1600) Mannerism Spanish sculptor
(1914-1973) Danish painter and writer, a forerunner of *Action painting in Europe, a founder of the *Cobra group and a contributor to the Exhibition of Experimental Art, Amsterdam (1949). Between 1957 and 1961 J. was an important member of the international Situationist movement.
(1791-1850) Baroque English sculptor
(1689-1775) Baroque French cabinet-maker (Paris)
JOUE, Jacques de la (see LAJOUE, Jacques de)
(1686-1761) Baroque French painter (Paris)
(1644-1717) Baroque French painter
JUAN DE FLANDES
(1465-1519) High Renaissance Spanish painter
JUAN de Levi
(1388-1410) Spanish painter. He belonged to a family of converted Jews and was the nephew and pupil of the painter Guillén de Levi. He painted the altarpiece of SS Laurence, Catherine and Prudence, commissioned by the brother prelates Fernando and Pedro Pérez Calvillo for their sepulchral chapel, founded in 1376, in Tarazona Cathedral (Saragossa). The altarpiece was finished by 1403, when it was mentioned as a model in a contract that commissioned Juan de Levi to supply a retable for S Jaime, Montalban (untraced). Other documents record that he executed works in Huesca, Saragossa and Teruel, but none of these survives. The altarpiece in Tarazona Cathedral, Juan’s only surviving authenticated work, is one of the most beautiful examples of late 14th-century Aragonese art. It is painted in an expressive and elegant style, and shows great narrative ability. It indicates a development from an Italianizing Gothic style, of Sienese origin, towards a more international manner that incorporated elements derived from the work of north European masters.
JUANES, Juan de
(1523-1579) Mannerism Spanish painter
(1928-1994) American minimalist 'structure-maker' and leading theorist of *Minimal art. He, however, did not call himself a minimalist, but an empiricist. In the late '50s and early '60s his writings advocated rigorously new art and his belief that representational art was finished and that painting was 'finished', e.g. his article 'Specific Objects' (1965) which brusquely dismissed 2-dimensional painting as subject to 'the problem of Illusionism', arguing that the artist must work in the 'real space' of the 3rd dimension and that the art object was autonomous. J.'s cubic, rectilinear, freestanding works of the late '60s redefined the nature of sculpture alongside other minimalists including *Flavin, *Andre and F. *Morris. Fie used metals, e.g. galvanized iron or aluminium, and Plexiglas (sometimes painted in strong colours) in open structures which explored the relationships between space, scale and materials. These compositions were factory-made, fabricated by others and often determined according to mathematical progressions — this is apparent in the way in which his works were modular and serial repeating at identical intervals arrangements of identical units. He upheld the idea that such 'primary structures' were essentially different from *Constructivism m that they achieved a wholeness through the repetition of identical units in absolute symmetry. His views naturally led to *Conceptual art, but J. insisted that 'art is something you look at'. In the late 80s he founded the Chinati Foundation with Dia.
JUEL, Jens Jørgensen
(1745-1802) Rococo Danish painter. Noted for his landscapes and portraits, he painted compositionally balanced works in a harmonious palette, continuing a classical painterly tradition. The son of a vicar at Gamborg on Funen, Juel went to Hamburg (then under Danish sovereignty), where he studied under the German artist Johann Michael Gehrmann (d 1770). In 1765 he briefly returned to Fünen and then to Copenhagen, where he studied at the Kunstakademi until 1771. While at the academy he came under the influence of Carl Gustaf Pilo, a professor there from 1748 and best known for his portraits of the Danish royal family. It was also at the academy that Juel perfected his considerable talent in drawing.
(1731-1804) Rococo French sculptor
JUNI, Juan de
(1506-1577) Mannerism Spanish sculptor (Valladolid)
(1485-1549) High Renaissance French sculptor (Tours)
JUSTUS OF GHENT or Justus van Gent (see JOOS van Wassenhove)
(active 1460-80) Northern Renaissance Netherlandish painter, active also in Italy. He is commonly identified with JOOS VAN WASSENHOVE, master at Ghent, who is said to have gone to Rome some time between 1469 and 1475. Many of Justus’s works have been attributed to the Spaniard Pedro Berruguete, and problems remain in this area. Justus is documented between 1473 and 1475 in Urbino, where he ran a workshop, and he was the only major Netherlandish painter working in 15th-century Italy.
(1678-1736) Italian architect, draughtsman and designer. His work reinforced a Late Baroque classical tradition while also drawing on the leavening criticism of that tradition by Francesco Borromini. His work is characterized by clarity and directness, his architectural conceptions defined by a drastically reduced structure and complex conglomerate spaces; his surfaces were adorned with elaborate decorative systems the originality of which pointed the way to a light-hearted Rococo. In 1714 he became first architect of Victor-Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sicily. Juvarra’s mandate was to accomplish the transformation of Turin begun in the 17th century. During a 20-year residence in Turin he built sixteen palaces and eight churches, and designed numerous church ornaments. He also designed furniture, theatre scenery and urban complexes.