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  “If you pick up some paint with your brush and make somebody's nose with it, this is rather ridiculous when you think of it, theoretically or philosophically. It's really absurd to make an image, like a human image, with paint, today.”

“The attitude that nature is chaotic and that the artist puts order into it is a very absurd point of view, I think. All that we can hope for is to put some order into ourselves.”

“I make pictures and someone comes in and calls it art.”

Willem de Kooning


“Today painters do not have to go to a subject matter outside of themselves. Most modern painters work from a different source. They work from within.”

“When I am in a painting, I'm not aware of what I'm doing. It is only after a sort of 'get acquainted' period that I see what I have been about. I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image, etc, because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through. It is only when I lose contact with the painting that the result is a mess. Otherwise there is pure harmony, an easy give and take, and the painting comes out well.”

“The modern artist is working with space and time, and expressing his feelings rather than illustrating.”

Jackson Pollock


"There is no such thing as good painting about nothing."

"This would be a distortion of their meaning, since the pictures are intimate and intense, and are the opposite of what is decorative; and have been painted in a scale of normal living rather than an institutional scale."

"We assert that the subject is crucial and only that subject matter is valid which is tragic and timeless."

Mark Rothko

  Digital Art  
  George Grie  

Limitations live only in our minds. But if we use our imaginations, our possibilities become limitless.

Jamie Paolinetti

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  Digital photography and image processing

Digital photography and digital printing is now an acceptable medium of creation and presentation by major museums and galleries. But the work of artists who produce digital paintings and digital printmakers is beginning to find acceptance, as the output capabilities advance and quality increases. Internationally, many museums are now beginning to collect digital art such as the San Jose Museum of Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum print department also has a reasonable but small collection of digital art. One reason why the established art community finds it difficult to accept digital art is the erroneous perception of digital prints being endlessly reproducible. Many artists though are erasing the relevant image file after the first print, thus making it a unique artwork.

The availability and popularity of photograph manipulation software has spawned a vast and creative library of highly modified images, many bearing little or no hint of the original image. Using electronic versions of brushes, filters and enlargers, these "neographers" produce images unattainable through conventional photographic tools. In addition, digital artists may manipulate scanned drawings, paintings, collages or lithographs, as well as using any of the above-mentioned techniques in combination. Artists also use many other sources of electronic information and programs to create their work.[11]


Algorithmic art Art game Art software Austin Museum of Digital Art Computer art, Computer art scene Computer generated music Computer graphics Computer music Cyberarts Demoscene Digital illustration Digital imaging, Digital morphogenesis Digital paintingDigital photography Digital poetry Dynamic Painting Electronic art Electronic music Evolutionary art Movie special effects Fractal art Generative art Immersion (virtual reality) Interactive film Machinima Motion graphics Multimedia Music visualization New Media Art New Media Photo manipulation Pixel art Software art Systems art Tradigital art Video art Video game art Video game design Video poetry Virtual art


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Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process. Since the 1970s, various names have been used to describe the process including computer art and multimedia art, and digital art is itself placed under the larger umbrella term new media art.[1][2]

The impact of digital technology has transformed traditional activities such as painting, drawing and sculpture, while new forms, such as net art, digital installation art, and virtual reality, have become recognized artistic practices.[3] More generally the term digital artist is used to describe an artist who makes use of digital technologies in the production of art. In an expanded sense, "digital art" is a term applied to contemporary art that uses the methods of mass production or digital media.[4]

Various aspects of digital art

Algorithmic art

Art game

Art software

Austin Museum of Digital Art           

Computer art

Computer art scene

Computer generated music

Computer graphics

Computer music



Digital illustration

Digital imaging

Digital morphogenesis           

Digital painting

Digital photography

Digital poetry

Dynamic Painting

Electronic art

Electronic music

Evolutionary art

Movie special effects

Fractal art

Generative art

Immersion (virtual reality)           

Interactive film


Motion graphics


Music visualization

New Media Art

New Media

Photo manipulation

Pixel art

Software art

Systems art

Tradigital art

Video art

Video game art

Video game design

Video poetry

Virtual art

The techniques of digital art are used extensively by the mainstream media in advertisements, and by film-makers to produce special effects. Desktop publishing has had a huge impact on the publishing world, although that is more related to graphic design. It is possible that general acceptance of the value of digital art will progress in much the same way as the increased acceptance of electronically produced music over the last three decades.[5]

Digital art can be purely computer-generated (such as fractals and algorithmic art) or taken from other sources, such as a scanned photograph or an image drawn using vector graphics software using a mouse or graphics tablet.[6] Though technically the term may be applied to art done using other media or processes and merely scanned in, it is usually reserved for art that has been non-trivially modified by a computing process (such as a computer program, microcontroller or any electronic system capable of interpreting an input to create an output); digitized text data and raw audio and video recordings are not usually considered digital art in themselves, but can be part of the larger project of computer art and information art.[7] Artworks are considered digital painting when created in similar fashion to non-digital paintings but using software on a computer platform and digitally outputting the resulting image as painted on canvas.[8]

Andy Warhol created digital art with the help of Amiga, Inc. in July 1985 when he publicly introduced at Lincoln Center Amiga paint software.[9][10]

  Computer-generated visual media

There are two main paradigms in computer generated imagery.[citation needed] The simplest is 2D computer graphics which reflect how you might draw using a pencil and a piece of paper. In this case, however, the image is on the computer screen and the instrument you draw with might be a tablet stylus or a mouse. What is generated on your screen might appear to be drawn with a pencil, pen or paintbrush. The second kind is 3D computer graphics, where the screen becomes a window into a virtual environment, where you arrange objects to be "photographed" by the computer. Typically a 2D computer graphics use raster graphics as their primary means of source data representations, whereas 3D computer graphics use vector graphics in the creation of immersive virtual reality installations. A possible third paradigm is to generate art in 2D or 3D entirely through the execution of algorithms coded into computer programs and could be considered the native art form of the computer. That is, it cannot be produced without the computer. Fractal art, Datamoshing, algorithmic art and Dynamic Painting are examples.


Computer generated 3D still imagery

3D computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing later or displayed in real-time.

Despite these differences, 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is occasionally blurred; 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, and 3D may use 2D rendering techniques.

3D computer graphics are often referred to as 3D models. Apart from the rendered graphic, the model is contained within the graphical data file. However, there are differences. A 3D model is the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object. A model is not technically a graphic until it is displayed. Due to 3D printing, 3D models are not confined to virtual space. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering, or used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations.

Digital installation art

Digital installation art constitutes a broad field of activity and incorporates many forms. Some resemble video installations, particularly large scale works involving projections and live video capture. By using projection techniques that enhance an audiences impression of sensory envelopment, many digital installations attempt to create immersive environments. Others go even further and attempt to facilitate a complete immersion in virtual realms. This type of installation is generally site specific, scalable, and without fixed dimensionality, meaning it can be reconfigured to accommodate different presentation spaces.[14]

Noah Wardrip-Fruin's interactive new media art piece entitled "Screen is an example of digital installation art. To view and interact with the piece, a user first enters a room, called the "Cave," which is a virtual reality display area with four walls surrounding the participant. White memory texts appear on the background of black walls. Through bodily interaction, such as using one's hand, a user can move and bounce the text around the walls. The words can be made into sentences and eventually begin to "peel" off and move more rapidly around the user, creating a heightening sense of misplacement.

"In addition to creating a new form of bodily interaction with text through its play, Screen moves the player through three reading experiences — beginning with the familiar, stable, page-like text on the walls, followed by the word-by-word reading of peeling and hitting (where attention is focused), and with more peripheral awareness of the arrangements of flocking words and the new (often neologistic) text being assembled on the walls. Screen was first shown in 2003 as part of the Boston Cyberarts Festival (in the Cave at Brown University) and documentation of it has since been featured at The Iowa Review Web, presented at SIGGRAPH 2003, included in Alt+Ctrl: a festival of independent and alternative games, published in the DVD magazines Aspect and Chaise, as well as in readings in the Hammer Museum's HyperText series, at ACM Hypertext 2004, and in other venues." [15]


Significant digital artists



Carlos Amorales


Cory Arcangel

Roy Ascott

San Base

Maurice Benayoun

Ryan Bliss

Sandro Bocola

Maurizio Bolognini

Mez Breeze

Shawn Brixey

Thomas Charvériat

Brody Condon

Edmond Couchot

Donna Cox

Charles Csuri

Char Davies

Caterina Davinio

Ronald Davis

Heiko Daxl

Erik Dehkhoda

Rich DiSilvio

Pascal Dombis

David Em

Ken Feingold

Fred Forest

Herbert W. Franke

Ingeborg Fülepp

Laurence Gartel

George Grie

Lynn Hershman

Perry Hoberman

David Hockney

Bob Holmes

Marc Horowitz

G.H. Hovagimyan

Ryoji Ikeda

Sarah Jeanette Jackson           

Eduardo Kac

Junichi Kakizaki


Knowbotic Research

Roy LaGrone

John Lansdown

George Legrady

Golan Levin

Liu Dao

Rafael Lozano-Hemmer           


Sergio Maltagliati

Michael Mandiberg

Lev Manovich

Dave McKean

Christian Moeller

Manfred Mohr

Francesco Monico

Michael Naimark

Frieder Nake

Joseph Nechvatal

Graham Nicholls

The OpenEnded Group

Zaven Paré

Nicola Pezzetta

Melinda Rackham

Sonya Rapoport

Ken Rinaldo

Don Ritter

Miroslaw Rogala

David Rokeby

Stefan Roloff

Jason Salavon

Lillian Schwartz

Stjepan Šejic

Graham Smith

Scott Snibbe

Alan Sondheim

Manfred Stumpf

Camille Utterback

Bill Viola

Noah Wardrip-Fruin

Andy Warhol

Hisham Zreiq



Since the war every twentieth-century style in painting is being brought to profusion in the United States: thousands of ‘abstract' painters — crowded teaching courses in Modern Art — a scattering of new heroes — ambitions stimulated by new galleries, mass exhibitions, reproductions in popular magazines, festivals, appropriations.

Is this the usual catching up of America with European art forms? Or is something new being created? For the question of novelty, a definition would seem indispensable.

Some people deny that there is anything original in the recent American painting. Whatever is being done here now, they claim, was done thirty years ago in Paris. You can trace this painter's boxes of symbols to Kandinsky, that one's moony shapes to Miro or even back to Cezanne... read more

The American Action Painters
by Harold Rosenberg

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